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Beyond gist: strategic and incremental information accumulation for scene categorization.

Malcolm GL, Nuthmann A, Schyns PG - Psychol Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: However, this focus has led to a paucity of research into how scenes are categorized at specific hierarchical levels (e.g., a scene could be a road or more specifically a highway); consequently, research has disregarded a potential diagnostically driven feedback process.By recording where in a scene participants fixated prior to making a basic- or subordinate-level judgment, we identified the scene information accrued when participants made either categorization.Our results demonstrate that during scene processing, a diagnostically driven bidirectional interplay between top-down and bottom-up information facilitates relevant category processing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1The George Washington University.

ABSTRACT
Research on scene categorization generally concentrates on gist processing, particularly the speed and minimal features with which the "story" of a scene can be extracted. However, this focus has led to a paucity of research into how scenes are categorized at specific hierarchical levels (e.g., a scene could be a road or more specifically a highway); consequently, research has disregarded a potential diagnostically driven feedback process. We presented participants with scenes that were low-pass filtered so only their gist was revealed, while a gaze-contingent window provided the fovea with full-resolution details. By recording where in a scene participants fixated prior to making a basic- or subordinate-level judgment, we identified the scene information accrued when participants made either categorization. We observed a feedback process, dependent on categorization level, that systematically accrues sufficient and detailed diagnostic information from the same scene. Our results demonstrate that during scene processing, a diagnostically driven bidirectional interplay between top-down and bottom-up information facilitates relevant category processing.

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Example of what a participant might have seen during the gaze-contingent experiment. Each scene was presented at low spatial frequencies. However, an area 2.5° in diameter appeared in full resolution wherever participants moved their eyes. A Gaussian low-pass filter was applied around the border of the window to avoid perceptual problems resulting from sharp boundaries.
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fig2-0956797614522816: Example of what a participant might have seen during the gaze-contingent experiment. Each scene was presented at low spatial frequencies. However, an area 2.5° in diameter appeared in full resolution wherever participants moved their eyes. A Gaussian low-pass filter was applied around the border of the window to avoid perceptual problems resulting from sharp boundaries.

Mentions: We low-pass filtered scenes (i.e., removed high-spatial-frequency, or HSF, details) to leave only information below 25 × 18.75 cycles per image (0.83 × 0.62 cycles per degree of visual angle). A pilot test found that with this filtering, participants made basic and subordinate category judgments with 78% and 23% accuracy, respectively, during a four-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) task. In addition to showing participants low-pass-filtered images, we provided them with the ability to obtain additional visual details to inform their category decision: A gaze-contingent moving window, 2.5° in diameter, provided full-resolution information from the scene to foveal vision. Updating the display required 1 ms to receive gaze-position information from the eye tracker, less than 1 ms to draw the image textures, and up to 7 ms to refresh the screen. We smoothed the perimeter of the window with a Gaussian low-pass filter to avoid possible perceptual problems resulting from sharp-boundary windows (Fig. 2). The gaze-contingent window afforded viewers the ability to flesh out aspects of the scene with extra HSF details to facilitate category judgments, which would expose the feedback process.


Beyond gist: strategic and incremental information accumulation for scene categorization.

Malcolm GL, Nuthmann A, Schyns PG - Psychol Sci (2014)

Example of what a participant might have seen during the gaze-contingent experiment. Each scene was presented at low spatial frequencies. However, an area 2.5° in diameter appeared in full resolution wherever participants moved their eyes. A Gaussian low-pass filter was applied around the border of the window to avoid perceptual problems resulting from sharp boundaries.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232276&req=5

fig2-0956797614522816: Example of what a participant might have seen during the gaze-contingent experiment. Each scene was presented at low spatial frequencies. However, an area 2.5° in diameter appeared in full resolution wherever participants moved their eyes. A Gaussian low-pass filter was applied around the border of the window to avoid perceptual problems resulting from sharp boundaries.
Mentions: We low-pass filtered scenes (i.e., removed high-spatial-frequency, or HSF, details) to leave only information below 25 × 18.75 cycles per image (0.83 × 0.62 cycles per degree of visual angle). A pilot test found that with this filtering, participants made basic and subordinate category judgments with 78% and 23% accuracy, respectively, during a four-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) task. In addition to showing participants low-pass-filtered images, we provided them with the ability to obtain additional visual details to inform their category decision: A gaze-contingent moving window, 2.5° in diameter, provided full-resolution information from the scene to foveal vision. Updating the display required 1 ms to receive gaze-position information from the eye tracker, less than 1 ms to draw the image textures, and up to 7 ms to refresh the screen. We smoothed the perimeter of the window with a Gaussian low-pass filter to avoid possible perceptual problems resulting from sharp-boundary windows (Fig. 2). The gaze-contingent window afforded viewers the ability to flesh out aspects of the scene with extra HSF details to facilitate category judgments, which would expose the feedback process.

Bottom Line: However, this focus has led to a paucity of research into how scenes are categorized at specific hierarchical levels (e.g., a scene could be a road or more specifically a highway); consequently, research has disregarded a potential diagnostically driven feedback process.By recording where in a scene participants fixated prior to making a basic- or subordinate-level judgment, we identified the scene information accrued when participants made either categorization.Our results demonstrate that during scene processing, a diagnostically driven bidirectional interplay between top-down and bottom-up information facilitates relevant category processing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1The George Washington University.

ABSTRACT
Research on scene categorization generally concentrates on gist processing, particularly the speed and minimal features with which the "story" of a scene can be extracted. However, this focus has led to a paucity of research into how scenes are categorized at specific hierarchical levels (e.g., a scene could be a road or more specifically a highway); consequently, research has disregarded a potential diagnostically driven feedback process. We presented participants with scenes that were low-pass filtered so only their gist was revealed, while a gaze-contingent window provided the fovea with full-resolution details. By recording where in a scene participants fixated prior to making a basic- or subordinate-level judgment, we identified the scene information accrued when participants made either categorization. We observed a feedback process, dependent on categorization level, that systematically accrues sufficient and detailed diagnostic information from the same scene. Our results demonstrate that during scene processing, a diagnostically driven bidirectional interplay between top-down and bottom-up information facilitates relevant category processing.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus