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Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis.

Kumar R, Engwerda C - Clin Transl Immunology (2014)

Bottom Line: Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people.In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth.However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Immunology and Infection Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer , Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Life cycle and transmission of Leishmania parasites. The promastigote form of Leishmania parasites responsible for human disease (VL, CL and MCL) are injected into the skin as a female sand fly takes a blood meal (1), and are then taken up by host macrophages (2). Promastigotes convert to the non-flagellated, amastigote form inside macrophages (3) and then divide by binary fission (4). The amastigotes are released by the rupture of macrophages (5) and can then be taken up by a female sand fly during another blood meal. The amastigote form then converts in the promastigote form in the midgut of the sand fly and can then again be transmitted to another human (anthroponotic transmission) or to animals that act as reservoirs (zoonotic transmission) (6).
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fig1: Life cycle and transmission of Leishmania parasites. The promastigote form of Leishmania parasites responsible for human disease (VL, CL and MCL) are injected into the skin as a female sand fly takes a blood meal (1), and are then taken up by host macrophages (2). Promastigotes convert to the non-flagellated, amastigote form inside macrophages (3) and then divide by binary fission (4). The amastigotes are released by the rupture of macrophages (5) and can then be taken up by a female sand fly during another blood meal. The amastigote form then converts in the promastigote form in the midgut of the sand fly and can then again be transmitted to another human (anthroponotic transmission) or to animals that act as reservoirs (zoonotic transmission) (6).

Mentions: Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by obligate, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. These parasites are transmitted by 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes and replicate as intracellular, aflagellate amastigotes in mononuclear phagocytes in mammalian hosts.1, 2 Leishmaniasis ranges from self healing, asymptomatic infection to localized skin lesions, and can develop into a life-threatening progressive visceral form of disease. Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, affecting mainly very poor people in developing countries. It is prevalent throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean, Southern Europe (old world) and South and Central America (new world). The disease is endemic in 88 countries, of which 72 are developing countries. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting leishmaniasis and 1.5–2 million new cases occur annually.3 The transmission of Leishmania parasites is anthroponotic (human to vector to human) in the Indian subcontinent and Asia, while in Africa, Europe and the Americas', it is zoonotic (animal to vector to human), where dogs and rodents act as reservoir (Figure 1).4, 5, 6


Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis.

Kumar R, Engwerda C - Clin Transl Immunology (2014)

Life cycle and transmission of Leishmania parasites. The promastigote form of Leishmania parasites responsible for human disease (VL, CL and MCL) are injected into the skin as a female sand fly takes a blood meal (1), and are then taken up by host macrophages (2). Promastigotes convert to the non-flagellated, amastigote form inside macrophages (3) and then divide by binary fission (4). The amastigotes are released by the rupture of macrophages (5) and can then be taken up by a female sand fly during another blood meal. The amastigote form then converts in the promastigote form in the midgut of the sand fly and can then again be transmitted to another human (anthroponotic transmission) or to animals that act as reservoirs (zoonotic transmission) (6).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232054&req=5

fig1: Life cycle and transmission of Leishmania parasites. The promastigote form of Leishmania parasites responsible for human disease (VL, CL and MCL) are injected into the skin as a female sand fly takes a blood meal (1), and are then taken up by host macrophages (2). Promastigotes convert to the non-flagellated, amastigote form inside macrophages (3) and then divide by binary fission (4). The amastigotes are released by the rupture of macrophages (5) and can then be taken up by a female sand fly during another blood meal. The amastigote form then converts in the promastigote form in the midgut of the sand fly and can then again be transmitted to another human (anthroponotic transmission) or to animals that act as reservoirs (zoonotic transmission) (6).
Mentions: Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by obligate, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. These parasites are transmitted by 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes and replicate as intracellular, aflagellate amastigotes in mononuclear phagocytes in mammalian hosts.1, 2 Leishmaniasis ranges from self healing, asymptomatic infection to localized skin lesions, and can develop into a life-threatening progressive visceral form of disease. Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, affecting mainly very poor people in developing countries. It is prevalent throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean, Southern Europe (old world) and South and Central America (new world). The disease is endemic in 88 countries, of which 72 are developing countries. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting leishmaniasis and 1.5–2 million new cases occur annually.3 The transmission of Leishmania parasites is anthroponotic (human to vector to human) in the Indian subcontinent and Asia, while in Africa, Europe and the Americas', it is zoonotic (animal to vector to human), where dogs and rodents act as reservoir (Figure 1).4, 5, 6

Bottom Line: Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people.In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth.However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Immunology and Infection Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer , Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus