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Biofortified orange maize is as efficacious as a vitamin A supplement in Zambian children even in the presence of high liver reserves of vitamin A: a community-based, randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Gannon B, Kaliwile C, Arscott SA, Schmaelzle S, Chileshe J, Kalungwana N, Mosonda M, Pixley K, Masi C, Tanumihardjo SA - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2014)

Bottom Line: Median (95% CI) calculated liver reserves at baseline were 1.04 (0.97, 1.12) μmol/g liver, with 59% >1 μmol/g, the subtoxicity cutoff; none were <0.1 μmol/g, the deficiency cutoff.The calculated bioconversion factor was 10.4 μg β-carotene equivalents/1 μg retinol by using the middle 3 quintiles of change in TBRs from each group.Serum retinol did not change in response to intervention (P = 0.16) but was reduced with elevated C-reactive protein (P = 0.0029) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (P = 0.0023) at baseline. β-Carotene from maize was efficacious when consumed as a staple food in this population and could avoid the potential for hypervitaminosis A that was observed with the use of preformed VA from supplementation and fortification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (BG, SAA, SS, and SAT); National Food and Nutrition Commission of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia (CK, MM, and CM); Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia (JC and NK); and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Texcoco, Mexico (KP).

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Trial profile for a randomized, controlled efficacy study that fed orange maize to Zambian children for 90 d compared with positive and negative controls. VA− group received white maize throughout and placebo oil (214 μL) daily during the treatment period. Orange group received white maize during mixing/washout periods and orange maize and placebo oil (214 μL) daily during the treatment period. VA+ group received white maize throughout and VA in oil (400 μg retinol activity equivalents/d in 214 μL) during the treatment period. 1All 4 blood draws for the subject were analyzed for 13C-retinol content with adequate signal. VA, vitamin A.
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fig2: Trial profile for a randomized, controlled efficacy study that fed orange maize to Zambian children for 90 d compared with positive and negative controls. VA− group received white maize throughout and placebo oil (214 μL) daily during the treatment period. Orange group received white maize during mixing/washout periods and orange maize and placebo oil (214 μL) daily during the treatment period. VA+ group received white maize throughout and VA in oil (400 μg retinol activity equivalents/d in 214 μL) during the treatment period. 1All 4 blood draws for the subject were analyzed for 13C-retinol content with adequate signal. VA, vitamin A.

Mentions: The intervention began in May and went through October 2012. Children (n = 143) were recruited and consented, and 140 met baseline inclusion criteria. Baseline anthropometric data did not differ among groups (Table 1). One hundred thirty-five children completed the trial, and 133 sample sets were successfully analyzed; reasons for dropouts and losses are outlined in Figure 2. At baseline, 8 children (6%) were severely stunted (height-for-age z score <−3), whereas 39 (28%) were moderately stunted (height-for-age z score <−2); 25 (18%) children were undernourished (weight-for-age z score <−2), while none were severely undernourished (weight-for-age z score <−3).


Biofortified orange maize is as efficacious as a vitamin A supplement in Zambian children even in the presence of high liver reserves of vitamin A: a community-based, randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Gannon B, Kaliwile C, Arscott SA, Schmaelzle S, Chileshe J, Kalungwana N, Mosonda M, Pixley K, Masi C, Tanumihardjo SA - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2014)

Trial profile for a randomized, controlled efficacy study that fed orange maize to Zambian children for 90 d compared with positive and negative controls. VA− group received white maize throughout and placebo oil (214 μL) daily during the treatment period. Orange group received white maize during mixing/washout periods and orange maize and placebo oil (214 μL) daily during the treatment period. VA+ group received white maize throughout and VA in oil (400 μg retinol activity equivalents/d in 214 μL) during the treatment period. 1All 4 blood draws for the subject were analyzed for 13C-retinol content with adequate signal. VA, vitamin A.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232019&req=5

fig2: Trial profile for a randomized, controlled efficacy study that fed orange maize to Zambian children for 90 d compared with positive and negative controls. VA− group received white maize throughout and placebo oil (214 μL) daily during the treatment period. Orange group received white maize during mixing/washout periods and orange maize and placebo oil (214 μL) daily during the treatment period. VA+ group received white maize throughout and VA in oil (400 μg retinol activity equivalents/d in 214 μL) during the treatment period. 1All 4 blood draws for the subject were analyzed for 13C-retinol content with adequate signal. VA, vitamin A.
Mentions: The intervention began in May and went through October 2012. Children (n = 143) were recruited and consented, and 140 met baseline inclusion criteria. Baseline anthropometric data did not differ among groups (Table 1). One hundred thirty-five children completed the trial, and 133 sample sets were successfully analyzed; reasons for dropouts and losses are outlined in Figure 2. At baseline, 8 children (6%) were severely stunted (height-for-age z score <−3), whereas 39 (28%) were moderately stunted (height-for-age z score <−2); 25 (18%) children were undernourished (weight-for-age z score <−2), while none were severely undernourished (weight-for-age z score <−3).

Bottom Line: Median (95% CI) calculated liver reserves at baseline were 1.04 (0.97, 1.12) μmol/g liver, with 59% >1 μmol/g, the subtoxicity cutoff; none were <0.1 μmol/g, the deficiency cutoff.The calculated bioconversion factor was 10.4 μg β-carotene equivalents/1 μg retinol by using the middle 3 quintiles of change in TBRs from each group.Serum retinol did not change in response to intervention (P = 0.16) but was reduced with elevated C-reactive protein (P = 0.0029) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (P = 0.0023) at baseline. β-Carotene from maize was efficacious when consumed as a staple food in this population and could avoid the potential for hypervitaminosis A that was observed with the use of preformed VA from supplementation and fortification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (BG, SAA, SS, and SAT); National Food and Nutrition Commission of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia (CK, MM, and CM); Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia (JC and NK); and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Texcoco, Mexico (KP).

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus