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Counterfactual thinking in patients with amnesia.

Mullally SL, Maguire EA - Hippocampus (2014)

Bottom Line: They could deconstruct reality, add in and recombine elements, change relations between temporal sequences of events, enabling them to determine plausible alternatives of complex episodes.A difference between the patients and control participants was evident, however, in the patients' subtle avoidance of CF simulations that required the construction of an internal spatial representation.Overall, our findings suggest that mental simulation in the form of nonepisodic CF thinking does not seem to depend upon the hippocampus unless there is the added requirement for construction of a coherent spatial scene within which to play out scenarios.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience, Henry Wellcome Building for Neuroecology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The CF Generation Task. A: The task narrative. B: The 12 altered antecedents. Ten of these altered antecedents could potentially change the outcome of the day's events, two could not (lure items: 2 and 4). Within the 10 causal antecedents, five represent mutation of the salient CF fault-lines (“causal + CF” items: 1, 3, 6, 10, 11, highlighted in gray for illustrative purposes only), whereas the other five items (5, 7, 8, 9, 12) were “causal-only” antecedents.
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fig01: The CF Generation Task. A: The task narrative. B: The 12 altered antecedents. Ten of these altered antecedents could potentially change the outcome of the day's events, two could not (lure items: 2 and 4). Within the 10 causal antecedents, five represent mutation of the salient CF fault-lines (“causal + CF” items: 1, 3, 6, 10, 11, highlighted in gray for illustrative purposes only), whereas the other five items (5, 7, 8, 9, 12) were “causal-only” antecedents.

Mentions: In the CF Generation Task, participants read a narrative about a fictional character Noel and his pilot friend who were involved in a plane crash (Fig. 1A). The sequence of events leading to the plane crash was structured so that it contained twelve seemingly salient “fault-lines” which could be readily altered. Within these 12 fault-lines, two would, if altered, not affect the outcome of the day's events (“lure” antecedents), five would, if altered, potentially change the outcome of the day's events but should not readily evoke CF thoughts (“causal-only” antecedents), while the remaining five fault-lines were both causal and CF in nature (they should readily evoke CF alternatives; “causal + CF” antecedents).


Counterfactual thinking in patients with amnesia.

Mullally SL, Maguire EA - Hippocampus (2014)

The CF Generation Task. A: The task narrative. B: The 12 altered antecedents. Ten of these altered antecedents could potentially change the outcome of the day's events, two could not (lure items: 2 and 4). Within the 10 causal antecedents, five represent mutation of the salient CF fault-lines (“causal + CF” items: 1, 3, 6, 10, 11, highlighted in gray for illustrative purposes only), whereas the other five items (5, 7, 8, 9, 12) were “causal-only” antecedents.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4231991&req=5

fig01: The CF Generation Task. A: The task narrative. B: The 12 altered antecedents. Ten of these altered antecedents could potentially change the outcome of the day's events, two could not (lure items: 2 and 4). Within the 10 causal antecedents, five represent mutation of the salient CF fault-lines (“causal + CF” items: 1, 3, 6, 10, 11, highlighted in gray for illustrative purposes only), whereas the other five items (5, 7, 8, 9, 12) were “causal-only” antecedents.
Mentions: In the CF Generation Task, participants read a narrative about a fictional character Noel and his pilot friend who were involved in a plane crash (Fig. 1A). The sequence of events leading to the plane crash was structured so that it contained twelve seemingly salient “fault-lines” which could be readily altered. Within these 12 fault-lines, two would, if altered, not affect the outcome of the day's events (“lure” antecedents), five would, if altered, potentially change the outcome of the day's events but should not readily evoke CF thoughts (“causal-only” antecedents), while the remaining five fault-lines were both causal and CF in nature (they should readily evoke CF alternatives; “causal + CF” antecedents).

Bottom Line: They could deconstruct reality, add in and recombine elements, change relations between temporal sequences of events, enabling them to determine plausible alternatives of complex episodes.A difference between the patients and control participants was evident, however, in the patients' subtle avoidance of CF simulations that required the construction of an internal spatial representation.Overall, our findings suggest that mental simulation in the form of nonepisodic CF thinking does not seem to depend upon the hippocampus unless there is the added requirement for construction of a coherent spatial scene within which to play out scenarios.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience, Henry Wellcome Building for Neuroecology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus