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Temperature dependent bacteriophages of a tropical bacterial pathogen.

Shan J, Korbsrisate S, Withatanung P, Adler NL, Clokie MR, Galyov EE - Front Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: Experiments on one phage in the related model B. thailandensis demonstrated that temperature defines the outcome of phage-bacteria interactions.Furthermore, when taken together with previous studies, our findings suggest that the phenomenon of temperature dependency in phages is widespread.Such phages are likely to have a profound effect on bacterial biology, and on our ability to culture and correctly enumerate viable bacteria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester Leicester, UK.

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing awareness of the multiple ways that bacteriophages (phages) influence bacterial evolution, population dynamics, physiology, and pathogenicity. By studying a novel group of phages infecting a soil borne pathogen, we revealed a paradigm shifting observation that the phages switch their lifestyle according to temperature. We sampled soil from an endemic area of the serious tropical pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, and established that podoviruses infecting the pathogen are frequently present in soil, and many of them are naturally occurring variants of a common virus type. Experiments on one phage in the related model B. thailandensis demonstrated that temperature defines the outcome of phage-bacteria interactions. At higher temperatures (37°C), the phage predominantly goes through a lytic cycle, but at lower temperatures (25°C), the phage remains temperate. This is the first report of a naturally occurring phage that follows a lytic or temperate lifestyle according to temperature. These observations fundamentally alter the accepted views on the abundance, population biology and virulence of B. pseudomallei. Furthermore, when taken together with previous studies, our findings suggest that the phenomenon of temperature dependency in phages is widespread. Such phages are likely to have a profound effect on bacterial biology, and on our ability to culture and correctly enumerate viable bacteria.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Novel B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis podoviruses are abundant in the pathogen endemic area of Thailand. (A) Numerous phages were isolated from soil samples (∼sampling locations are highlighted by dots). (B) TEM of a podovirus, typical of phages isolated in this study. Scale bar is 50 nm. (C) Whole genome sequencing of four phages revealed an almost identical genome arrangements and content as illustrated here for ØBp-AMP1, the SNPs are shown with stars and the Indels with circles. Genomes have been deposited in EMBL. (D) Phylogenetic analysis based on the capsid protein for the four fully sequenced phages showing that the phages are novel and closely related to phages. Scale bar represents 0.2 amino acid changes per site.
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Figure 1: Novel B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis podoviruses are abundant in the pathogen endemic area of Thailand. (A) Numerous phages were isolated from soil samples (∼sampling locations are highlighted by dots). (B) TEM of a podovirus, typical of phages isolated in this study. Scale bar is 50 nm. (C) Whole genome sequencing of four phages revealed an almost identical genome arrangements and content as illustrated here for ØBp-AMP1, the SNPs are shown with stars and the Indels with circles. Genomes have been deposited in EMBL. (D) Phylogenetic analysis based on the capsid protein for the four fully sequenced phages showing that the phages are novel and closely related to phages. Scale bar represents 0.2 amino acid changes per site.

Mentions: To study B. pseudomallei phages present in the environment, we sampled soil from rice paddies throughout North-Eastern Thailand and isolated numerous phages capable of infecting this bacterium (Figure 1A). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that most of the isolated viruses were podoviruses (Figure 1B). All of these podoviruses were morphologically similar to the phage that we previously described (Gatedee et al., 2011). Each of these phages could infect the B. pseudomallei K96243 strain and the related non-pathogenic B. thailandensis strain E264, although the efficiencies by which they infected the two species varied (data not shown).


Temperature dependent bacteriophages of a tropical bacterial pathogen.

Shan J, Korbsrisate S, Withatanung P, Adler NL, Clokie MR, Galyov EE - Front Microbiol (2014)

Novel B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis podoviruses are abundant in the pathogen endemic area of Thailand. (A) Numerous phages were isolated from soil samples (∼sampling locations are highlighted by dots). (B) TEM of a podovirus, typical of phages isolated in this study. Scale bar is 50 nm. (C) Whole genome sequencing of four phages revealed an almost identical genome arrangements and content as illustrated here for ØBp-AMP1, the SNPs are shown with stars and the Indels with circles. Genomes have been deposited in EMBL. (D) Phylogenetic analysis based on the capsid protein for the four fully sequenced phages showing that the phages are novel and closely related to phages. Scale bar represents 0.2 amino acid changes per site.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4231975&req=5

Figure 1: Novel B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis podoviruses are abundant in the pathogen endemic area of Thailand. (A) Numerous phages were isolated from soil samples (∼sampling locations are highlighted by dots). (B) TEM of a podovirus, typical of phages isolated in this study. Scale bar is 50 nm. (C) Whole genome sequencing of four phages revealed an almost identical genome arrangements and content as illustrated here for ØBp-AMP1, the SNPs are shown with stars and the Indels with circles. Genomes have been deposited in EMBL. (D) Phylogenetic analysis based on the capsid protein for the four fully sequenced phages showing that the phages are novel and closely related to phages. Scale bar represents 0.2 amino acid changes per site.
Mentions: To study B. pseudomallei phages present in the environment, we sampled soil from rice paddies throughout North-Eastern Thailand and isolated numerous phages capable of infecting this bacterium (Figure 1A). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that most of the isolated viruses were podoviruses (Figure 1B). All of these podoviruses were morphologically similar to the phage that we previously described (Gatedee et al., 2011). Each of these phages could infect the B. pseudomallei K96243 strain and the related non-pathogenic B. thailandensis strain E264, although the efficiencies by which they infected the two species varied (data not shown).

Bottom Line: Experiments on one phage in the related model B. thailandensis demonstrated that temperature defines the outcome of phage-bacteria interactions.Furthermore, when taken together with previous studies, our findings suggest that the phenomenon of temperature dependency in phages is widespread.Such phages are likely to have a profound effect on bacterial biology, and on our ability to culture and correctly enumerate viable bacteria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester Leicester, UK.

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing awareness of the multiple ways that bacteriophages (phages) influence bacterial evolution, population dynamics, physiology, and pathogenicity. By studying a novel group of phages infecting a soil borne pathogen, we revealed a paradigm shifting observation that the phages switch their lifestyle according to temperature. We sampled soil from an endemic area of the serious tropical pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, and established that podoviruses infecting the pathogen are frequently present in soil, and many of them are naturally occurring variants of a common virus type. Experiments on one phage in the related model B. thailandensis demonstrated that temperature defines the outcome of phage-bacteria interactions. At higher temperatures (37°C), the phage predominantly goes through a lytic cycle, but at lower temperatures (25°C), the phage remains temperate. This is the first report of a naturally occurring phage that follows a lytic or temperate lifestyle according to temperature. These observations fundamentally alter the accepted views on the abundance, population biology and virulence of B. pseudomallei. Furthermore, when taken together with previous studies, our findings suggest that the phenomenon of temperature dependency in phages is widespread. Such phages are likely to have a profound effect on bacterial biology, and on our ability to culture and correctly enumerate viable bacteria.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus