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Mast cell mediators: their differential release and the secretory pathways involved.

Moon TC, Befus AD, Kulka M - Front Immunol (2014)

Bottom Line: Although MC have been classically viewed as effector cells of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, they are also recognized as important in host defense, innate and acquired immunity, homeostatic responses, and immunoregulation.However, the precise mechanisms underlying differential mediator release in response to these stimuli are poorly known.This review summarizes our knowledge of MC mediators and will focus on what is known about the discriminatory release of these mediators dependent upon diverse stimuli, MC phenotypes, and species of origin, as well as on the intracellular synthesis, storage, and secretory processes involved.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pulmonary Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta , Edmonton, AB , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Mast cells (MC) are widely distributed throughout the body and are common at mucosal surfaces, a major host-environment interface. MC are functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous depending on the microenvironment in which they mature. Although MC have been classically viewed as effector cells of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, they are also recognized as important in host defense, innate and acquired immunity, homeostatic responses, and immunoregulation. MC activation can induce release of pre-formed mediators such as histamine from their granules, as well as release of de novo synthesized lipid mediators, cytokines, and chemokines that play diverse roles, not only in allergic reactions but also in numerous physiological and pathophysiological responses. Indeed, MC release their mediators in a discriminating and chronological manner, depending upon the stimuli involved and their signaling cascades (e.g., IgE-mediated or Toll-like receptor-mediated). However, the precise mechanisms underlying differential mediator release in response to these stimuli are poorly known. This review summarizes our knowledge of MC mediators and will focus on what is known about the discriminatory release of these mediators dependent upon diverse stimuli, MC phenotypes, and species of origin, as well as on the intracellular synthesis, storage, and secretory processes involved.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mediator release from MC. MC release various mediators from different compartments following different stimuli. MC rapidly release pre-stored granule contents by piecemeal or anaphylactic degranulation. Immature progranules and mature granules can fuse with endosomes, and store lysosomal proteins. Some mediators can be released from granules and endosomes through exosomal secretion. Lipid mediators such as PGD2 and LTC4 are synthesized in lipid bodies, nuclear and ER membranes, and released through active transporters. De novo synthesized cytokines and chemokines packaged in secretory vesicles are released through constitutive exocytosis.
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Figure 1: Mediator release from MC. MC release various mediators from different compartments following different stimuli. MC rapidly release pre-stored granule contents by piecemeal or anaphylactic degranulation. Immature progranules and mature granules can fuse with endosomes, and store lysosomal proteins. Some mediators can be released from granules and endosomes through exosomal secretion. Lipid mediators such as PGD2 and LTC4 are synthesized in lipid bodies, nuclear and ER membranes, and released through active transporters. De novo synthesized cytokines and chemokines packaged in secretory vesicles are released through constitutive exocytosis.

Mentions: This review identifies our current understanding of the biogenesis of various mediator compartments, and the mechanisms of sorting and release of mediators from these compartments (Figure 1). We present some new postulates about exocytosis that may be particularly relevant to the MC, a highly specialized secretory cell (13). We also refer the readers some excellent recent articles for more details on various aspects of this subject (9, 14–19).


Mast cell mediators: their differential release and the secretory pathways involved.

Moon TC, Befus AD, Kulka M - Front Immunol (2014)

Mediator release from MC. MC release various mediators from different compartments following different stimuli. MC rapidly release pre-stored granule contents by piecemeal or anaphylactic degranulation. Immature progranules and mature granules can fuse with endosomes, and store lysosomal proteins. Some mediators can be released from granules and endosomes through exosomal secretion. Lipid mediators such as PGD2 and LTC4 are synthesized in lipid bodies, nuclear and ER membranes, and released through active transporters. De novo synthesized cytokines and chemokines packaged in secretory vesicles are released through constitutive exocytosis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4231949&req=5

Figure 1: Mediator release from MC. MC release various mediators from different compartments following different stimuli. MC rapidly release pre-stored granule contents by piecemeal or anaphylactic degranulation. Immature progranules and mature granules can fuse with endosomes, and store lysosomal proteins. Some mediators can be released from granules and endosomes through exosomal secretion. Lipid mediators such as PGD2 and LTC4 are synthesized in lipid bodies, nuclear and ER membranes, and released through active transporters. De novo synthesized cytokines and chemokines packaged in secretory vesicles are released through constitutive exocytosis.
Mentions: This review identifies our current understanding of the biogenesis of various mediator compartments, and the mechanisms of sorting and release of mediators from these compartments (Figure 1). We present some new postulates about exocytosis that may be particularly relevant to the MC, a highly specialized secretory cell (13). We also refer the readers some excellent recent articles for more details on various aspects of this subject (9, 14–19).

Bottom Line: Although MC have been classically viewed as effector cells of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, they are also recognized as important in host defense, innate and acquired immunity, homeostatic responses, and immunoregulation.However, the precise mechanisms underlying differential mediator release in response to these stimuli are poorly known.This review summarizes our knowledge of MC mediators and will focus on what is known about the discriminatory release of these mediators dependent upon diverse stimuli, MC phenotypes, and species of origin, as well as on the intracellular synthesis, storage, and secretory processes involved.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pulmonary Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta , Edmonton, AB , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Mast cells (MC) are widely distributed throughout the body and are common at mucosal surfaces, a major host-environment interface. MC are functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous depending on the microenvironment in which they mature. Although MC have been classically viewed as effector cells of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, they are also recognized as important in host defense, innate and acquired immunity, homeostatic responses, and immunoregulation. MC activation can induce release of pre-formed mediators such as histamine from their granules, as well as release of de novo synthesized lipid mediators, cytokines, and chemokines that play diverse roles, not only in allergic reactions but also in numerous physiological and pathophysiological responses. Indeed, MC release their mediators in a discriminating and chronological manner, depending upon the stimuli involved and their signaling cascades (e.g., IgE-mediated or Toll-like receptor-mediated). However, the precise mechanisms underlying differential mediator release in response to these stimuli are poorly known. This review summarizes our knowledge of MC mediators and will focus on what is known about the discriminatory release of these mediators dependent upon diverse stimuli, MC phenotypes, and species of origin, as well as on the intracellular synthesis, storage, and secretory processes involved.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus