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Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk from European green crab invasion.

Mach ME, Chan KM - F1000Res (2013)

Bottom Line: C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries.The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year (-1) (2.8-64% losses), with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values.However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, Resource Management and Environmental Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z4, Canada ; Current address: Center for Ocean Solutions, Monterey, CA, 93940, USA.

ABSTRACT
Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound's shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year (-1) (2.8-64% losses), with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial motivation for strong measures to prevent, monitor, and manage the possible invasion of C. maenas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

PotentialCarcinus maenas distribution for the northeast Pacific coast from Northern California to Alaska, USA.The current nonnative distribution along the coast is indicated by a broad, stippled polygon, while the potential distribution of the species is plotted in black. Figure and MaxEnt potential distribution model from deRiveraet al.83, figure altered to clarify the absence ofC. maenas from Puget Sound. This figure has been adapted and reproduced with kind permission from Diversity and Distributions, © 2011.
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f1: PotentialCarcinus maenas distribution for the northeast Pacific coast from Northern California to Alaska, USA.The current nonnative distribution along the coast is indicated by a broad, stippled polygon, while the potential distribution of the species is plotted in black. Figure and MaxEnt potential distribution model from deRiveraet al.83, figure altered to clarify the absence ofC. maenas from Puget Sound. This figure has been adapted and reproduced with kind permission from Diversity and Distributions, © 2011.

Mentions: Secondary spread of green crab north along the northeast Pacific coastline has been correlated with increased seawater temperatures and north-running coastal currents during the 1998 El Nino event, making it particularly likely that future climate change will allow the crab to invade new areas of coastline52,53. The green crab is limited by temperature and salinity, surviving in water temperatures ranging from 0°C to 30°C and salinities of 4 to 34 mV/V, although reproduction and larval survival occur in a more limited range than the adults (review in35). Predictions based on these physiological limitations suggest that under current conditions green crab will continue expanding northward from its current northern extent of Vancouver Island until it reaches the Aleutian Islands45, and that it may enter the contiguous waters of Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia, BC, either by secondary introduction events from ballast release from large shipping freighters or through natural larval dispersal during one of the next El Nino events (Figure 1)54. Puget Sound is a large coastal estuary where extensive mudflats, eelgrass beds and warmer inland waters could provide optimal habitats forC. maenas foraging and reproduction.


Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk from European green crab invasion.

Mach ME, Chan KM - F1000Res (2013)

PotentialCarcinus maenas distribution for the northeast Pacific coast from Northern California to Alaska, USA.The current nonnative distribution along the coast is indicated by a broad, stippled polygon, while the potential distribution of the species is plotted in black. Figure and MaxEnt potential distribution model from deRiveraet al.83, figure altered to clarify the absence ofC. maenas from Puget Sound. This figure has been adapted and reproduced with kind permission from Diversity and Distributions, © 2011.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4231929&req=5

f1: PotentialCarcinus maenas distribution for the northeast Pacific coast from Northern California to Alaska, USA.The current nonnative distribution along the coast is indicated by a broad, stippled polygon, while the potential distribution of the species is plotted in black. Figure and MaxEnt potential distribution model from deRiveraet al.83, figure altered to clarify the absence ofC. maenas from Puget Sound. This figure has been adapted and reproduced with kind permission from Diversity and Distributions, © 2011.
Mentions: Secondary spread of green crab north along the northeast Pacific coastline has been correlated with increased seawater temperatures and north-running coastal currents during the 1998 El Nino event, making it particularly likely that future climate change will allow the crab to invade new areas of coastline52,53. The green crab is limited by temperature and salinity, surviving in water temperatures ranging from 0°C to 30°C and salinities of 4 to 34 mV/V, although reproduction and larval survival occur in a more limited range than the adults (review in35). Predictions based on these physiological limitations suggest that under current conditions green crab will continue expanding northward from its current northern extent of Vancouver Island until it reaches the Aleutian Islands45, and that it may enter the contiguous waters of Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia, BC, either by secondary introduction events from ballast release from large shipping freighters or through natural larval dispersal during one of the next El Nino events (Figure 1)54. Puget Sound is a large coastal estuary where extensive mudflats, eelgrass beds and warmer inland waters could provide optimal habitats forC. maenas foraging and reproduction.

Bottom Line: C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries.The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year (-1) (2.8-64% losses), with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values.However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, Resource Management and Environmental Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z4, Canada ; Current address: Center for Ocean Solutions, Monterey, CA, 93940, USA.

ABSTRACT
Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound's shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year (-1) (2.8-64% losses), with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial motivation for strong measures to prevent, monitor, and manage the possible invasion of C. maenas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus