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Choroid plexus in developmental and evolutionary perspective.

Bill BR, Korzh V - Front Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: Lately, progress in other model animals, in particular the zebrafish, has brought a deeper understanding of CP formation, due in part to the ability to observe CP development in vivo.At the same time, advances in comparative genomics began providing information, which opens a possibility to understand further the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of the CP and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary formation.Hence this review focuses on analysis of the CP from developmental and evolutionary perspectives.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
The blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary is present at the level of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. As one of the sources of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (CP) plays an important role during brain development and function. Its formation has been studied largely in mammalian species. Lately, progress in other model animals, in particular the zebrafish, has brought a deeper understanding of CP formation, due in part to the ability to observe CP development in vivo. At the same time, advances in comparative genomics began providing information, which opens a possibility to understand further the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of the CP and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary formation. Hence this review focuses on analysis of the CP from developmental and evolutionary perspectives.

No MeSH data available.


Schemata of location of anterior midline structures of the neural tube in zebrafish based on analysis of several enhancer-trap transgenics. Abbreviations: dCP, choroid plexus of diencephalon; mCP, choroid plexus of myelencephalon; FO, flexural organ; FP, floor plate; mRP, metencephalon (midbrain) roof plate; PC, posterior commissure; SCO, subcommissural organ; MHB, midbrain hindbrain boundary.
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Figure 2: Schemata of location of anterior midline structures of the neural tube in zebrafish based on analysis of several enhancer-trap transgenics. Abbreviations: dCP, choroid plexus of diencephalon; mCP, choroid plexus of myelencephalon; FO, flexural organ; FP, floor plate; mRP, metencephalon (midbrain) roof plate; PC, posterior commissure; SCO, subcommissural organ; MHB, midbrain hindbrain boundary.

Mentions: Given that all vertebrates, including fish have brain ventricles (Lowery and Sive, 2005), it is reasonable to expect that the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation were conserved during evolution, at least to some extent. For example, the Engrailed family of evolutionarily conserved transcriptional repressors plays an important role during formation of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and adjacent tissues, the posterior midbrain and cerebellum. Engrailed loss-of-function mutations result in a reduction and/or loss of these structures, whereas gain-of-function mutations in Engrailed family members expressed at the dorsal midline cause misspecification of roof plate cells thus perturbing axonal navigation and interfering with the development of structures deriving from the dorsal neuroepithelium, such as the CP, epiphysis and subcommissural organ in fish, birds and rodents (Araki and Nakamura, 1999; Ristoratore et al., 1999; Louvi and Wassef, 2000). This suggests that the developmental program of the CP and some circumventricular organs is evolutionarily conserved opening a possibility to study these processes in the abundantly available and transparent embryos of fish (Figure 2). Indeed, the first in vivo studies of several enhancer-trap transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing cytosolic GFP (Table 1) brought about significant progress in understanding the development of CP.


Choroid plexus in developmental and evolutionary perspective.

Bill BR, Korzh V - Front Neurosci (2014)

Schemata of location of anterior midline structures of the neural tube in zebrafish based on analysis of several enhancer-trap transgenics. Abbreviations: dCP, choroid plexus of diencephalon; mCP, choroid plexus of myelencephalon; FO, flexural organ; FP, floor plate; mRP, metencephalon (midbrain) roof plate; PC, posterior commissure; SCO, subcommissural organ; MHB, midbrain hindbrain boundary.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4231874&req=5

Figure 2: Schemata of location of anterior midline structures of the neural tube in zebrafish based on analysis of several enhancer-trap transgenics. Abbreviations: dCP, choroid plexus of diencephalon; mCP, choroid plexus of myelencephalon; FO, flexural organ; FP, floor plate; mRP, metencephalon (midbrain) roof plate; PC, posterior commissure; SCO, subcommissural organ; MHB, midbrain hindbrain boundary.
Mentions: Given that all vertebrates, including fish have brain ventricles (Lowery and Sive, 2005), it is reasonable to expect that the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation were conserved during evolution, at least to some extent. For example, the Engrailed family of evolutionarily conserved transcriptional repressors plays an important role during formation of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and adjacent tissues, the posterior midbrain and cerebellum. Engrailed loss-of-function mutations result in a reduction and/or loss of these structures, whereas gain-of-function mutations in Engrailed family members expressed at the dorsal midline cause misspecification of roof plate cells thus perturbing axonal navigation and interfering with the development of structures deriving from the dorsal neuroepithelium, such as the CP, epiphysis and subcommissural organ in fish, birds and rodents (Araki and Nakamura, 1999; Ristoratore et al., 1999; Louvi and Wassef, 2000). This suggests that the developmental program of the CP and some circumventricular organs is evolutionarily conserved opening a possibility to study these processes in the abundantly available and transparent embryos of fish (Figure 2). Indeed, the first in vivo studies of several enhancer-trap transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing cytosolic GFP (Table 1) brought about significant progress in understanding the development of CP.

Bottom Line: Lately, progress in other model animals, in particular the zebrafish, has brought a deeper understanding of CP formation, due in part to the ability to observe CP development in vivo.At the same time, advances in comparative genomics began providing information, which opens a possibility to understand further the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of the CP and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary formation.Hence this review focuses on analysis of the CP from developmental and evolutionary perspectives.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
The blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary is present at the level of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. As one of the sources of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (CP) plays an important role during brain development and function. Its formation has been studied largely in mammalian species. Lately, progress in other model animals, in particular the zebrafish, has brought a deeper understanding of CP formation, due in part to the ability to observe CP development in vivo. At the same time, advances in comparative genomics began providing information, which opens a possibility to understand further the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of the CP and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary formation. Hence this review focuses on analysis of the CP from developmental and evolutionary perspectives.

No MeSH data available.