Remarkable diversity of endogenous viruses in a crustacean genome.
Bottom Line: These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance.We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa.More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa.
Affiliation: Université de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7267 Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions, Equipe Ecologie Evolution Symbiose, Poitiers, France.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Within bunyaviruses, the seven A. vulgare EVEs fall in two distinct lineages. The first one (A. vulgare sequence number 2 in fig. 2 and number 5 in supplementary fig. S1, Supplementary Material online) falls within an extended Phlebovirus genus that in addition to well-characterized exogenous viruses (e.g., Uukuniemi, Rift Valley, and Toscana viruses; Palacios et al. 2013) has recently been proposed to include endogenous viruses from three water flea species (Daphnia genus, Cladocera, Crustacea) (Ballinger et al. 2013). The second one (fig. 2; A. vulgare sequence numbers 1, 3, 4, and 6–8) forms a well-supported clade (bootstrap = 100) sister to a large clade including the Phlebovirus and Tenuivirus genera and unclassified Bunyaviridae viruses infecting insects (Cumuto and Gouleako viruses; Marklewitz et al. 2011; Auguste et al. 2014) (bootstrap = 75).
Affiliation: Université de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7267 Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions, Equipe Ecologie Evolution Symbiose, Poitiers, France.