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Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.

Zhu R, Wang Q, Ding W, Wang C, Hou L, Ma D - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3).Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity.It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei City, Anhui Province 230026, P. R China.

ABSTRACT
Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica.

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Correlation between MBP levels and bacterial abundance, enzyme activities in tundra soils of maritime Antarctica.Note: r and p present Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the significant level between the correlations of MBP and the parameters, respectively. PCS, TOS, SCS, WTS and BGS indicated penguin colony soils, the adjacent penguin-lacking tundra soils, seal colony soils, the adjacent seal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils, respectively.
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f5: Correlation between MBP levels and bacterial abundance, enzyme activities in tundra soils of maritime Antarctica.Note: r and p present Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the significant level between the correlations of MBP and the parameters, respectively. PCS, TOS, SCS, WTS and BGS indicated penguin colony soils, the adjacent penguin-lacking tundra soils, seal colony soils, the adjacent seal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils, respectively.

Mentions: The bacterial abundance in penguin and seal colony soils and their adjacent tundra soils ranged from 2.5 × 1010 to 1.23 × 1012 gene copies g−1 soil (Fig. 5a). The gene copies in penguin colony soils were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in seal colony soils, their adjacent tundra soils and the local background soils. There is a significant positive correlation between MBP concentrations and the bacterial abundance, invertase and phosphatase activity (Fig. 5b, c, d). Our results confirm that the production of PH3 is associated with microbial activity, and all kinds of soil organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta can be reduced to PH3 through the bacterial activity under the Antarctic environmental conditions.


Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.

Zhu R, Wang Q, Ding W, Wang C, Hou L, Ma D - Sci Rep (2014)

Correlation between MBP levels and bacterial abundance, enzyme activities in tundra soils of maritime Antarctica.Note: r and p present Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the significant level between the correlations of MBP and the parameters, respectively. PCS, TOS, SCS, WTS and BGS indicated penguin colony soils, the adjacent penguin-lacking tundra soils, seal colony soils, the adjacent seal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4231338&req=5

f5: Correlation between MBP levels and bacterial abundance, enzyme activities in tundra soils of maritime Antarctica.Note: r and p present Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the significant level between the correlations of MBP and the parameters, respectively. PCS, TOS, SCS, WTS and BGS indicated penguin colony soils, the adjacent penguin-lacking tundra soils, seal colony soils, the adjacent seal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils, respectively.
Mentions: The bacterial abundance in penguin and seal colony soils and their adjacent tundra soils ranged from 2.5 × 1010 to 1.23 × 1012 gene copies g−1 soil (Fig. 5a). The gene copies in penguin colony soils were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in seal colony soils, their adjacent tundra soils and the local background soils. There is a significant positive correlation between MBP concentrations and the bacterial abundance, invertase and phosphatase activity (Fig. 5b, c, d). Our results confirm that the production of PH3 is associated with microbial activity, and all kinds of soil organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta can be reduced to PH3 through the bacterial activity under the Antarctic environmental conditions.

Bottom Line: Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3).Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity.It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei City, Anhui Province 230026, P. R China.

ABSTRACT
Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica.

Show MeSH