Macrophage heterogeneity in tissues: phenotypic diversity and functions.
Bottom Line: During development and throughout adult life, macrophages derived from hematopoietic progenitors are seeded throughout the body, initially in the absence of inflammatory and infectious stimuli as tissue-resident cells, with enhanced recruitment, activation, and local proliferation following injury and pathologic insults.We have learned a great deal about macrophage properties ex vivo and in cell culture, but their phenotypic heterogeneity within different tissue microenvironments remains poorly characterized, although it contributes significantly to maintaining local and systemic homeostasis, pathogenesis, and possible treatment.In this review, we summarize the nature, functions, and interactions of tissue macrophage populations within their microenvironment and suggest questions for further investigation.
Affiliation: Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: Panels of well characterized monoclonal antibodies provide a powerful tool to analyze genetically engineered mice and human samples; however, their full potential to determine the mechanisms and significance of macrophage phenotypic diversity has not yet been realized. In this review, we summarize applications of several monoclonal antibodies produced in our laboratory over the past 3 decades (Table 1and Figs 4), which helped to establish a basis for our knowledge of in situ heterogeneity of mouse macrophages in mouse tissues.
Affiliation: Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.