Macrophage heterogeneity in tissues: phenotypic diversity and functions.
Bottom Line: During development and throughout adult life, macrophages derived from hematopoietic progenitors are seeded throughout the body, initially in the absence of inflammatory and infectious stimuli as tissue-resident cells, with enhanced recruitment, activation, and local proliferation following injury and pathologic insults.We have learned a great deal about macrophage properties ex vivo and in cell culture, but their phenotypic heterogeneity within different tissue microenvironments remains poorly characterized, although it contributes significantly to maintaining local and systemic homeostasis, pathogenesis, and possible treatment.In this review, we summarize the nature, functions, and interactions of tissue macrophage populations within their microenvironment and suggest questions for further investigation.
Affiliation: Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: A similar strategy was used to investigate macrophage adhesion, providing reagents to probe cell recruitment (CD11b) and scavenger receptor A (SR-A)-mediated endocytosis. Specific monoclonal antibodies were generated for previously described lectin-like receptors, such as the Mannose receptor, CD206. Table 1 summarizes the properties and expression of a range of these and related reagents. Application of this panel of reagents revealed striking heterogeneity between different tissue macrophages, e.g. in liver and mouse spleen (Figs 1and2), but also within individual organs such as the brain (Fig. 3).
Affiliation: Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.