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Influence of exercise on bone remodeling-related hormones and cytokines in ovariectomized rats: a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Li L, Chen X, Lv S, Dong M, Zhang L, Tu J, Yang J, Zhang L, Song Y, Xu L, Zou J - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH.The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group.Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control group, (2) sham-operated group, (3) OVX (Ovariectomy) group, (4) DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX) group, and (5) Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX) group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%), total resorption surface (TRS%), trabecular formation surface (TFS%), mineralization rate (MAR), bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR), and osteoid seam width (OSW) were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones.

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IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA expression in the five groups.compared with the control group: □□p<0.01; compared with the sham-operated: **p<0.01; compared with the OVX group: △p<0.05, △△p<0.01; compared with the DES-OVX group: ▴▴p<0.01.
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pone-0112845-g005: IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA expression in the five groups.compared with the control group: □□p<0.01; compared with the sham-operated: **p<0.01; compared with the OVX group: △p<0.05, △△p<0.01; compared with the DES-OVX group: ▴▴p<0.01.

Mentions: To validate the above finding, we also analyzed the mRNA levels of these proteins on bone sections by in situ hybridization. As shown in Table 8andFigure 5, the OVX rats showed much higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA than the control and the sham-operated groups, which were restored to normal levels in the DES-OVX group. Moreover, the Ex-OVX group rats showed much lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA than the OVX group. These results suggest that exercise could inhibit the expression of these cytokines at the mRNA level.


Influence of exercise on bone remodeling-related hormones and cytokines in ovariectomized rats: a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Li L, Chen X, Lv S, Dong M, Zhang L, Tu J, Yang J, Zhang L, Song Y, Xu L, Zou J - PLoS ONE (2014)

IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA expression in the five groups.compared with the control group: □□p<0.01; compared with the sham-operated: **p<0.01; compared with the OVX group: △p<0.05, △△p<0.01; compared with the DES-OVX group: ▴▴p<0.01.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4231162&req=5

pone-0112845-g005: IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA expression in the five groups.compared with the control group: □□p<0.01; compared with the sham-operated: **p<0.01; compared with the OVX group: △p<0.05, △△p<0.01; compared with the DES-OVX group: ▴▴p<0.01.
Mentions: To validate the above finding, we also analyzed the mRNA levels of these proteins on bone sections by in situ hybridization. As shown in Table 8andFigure 5, the OVX rats showed much higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA than the control and the sham-operated groups, which were restored to normal levels in the DES-OVX group. Moreover, the Ex-OVX group rats showed much lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA than the OVX group. These results suggest that exercise could inhibit the expression of these cytokines at the mRNA level.

Bottom Line: The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH.The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group.Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control group, (2) sham-operated group, (3) OVX (Ovariectomy) group, (4) DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX) group, and (5) Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX) group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%), total resorption surface (TRS%), trabecular formation surface (TFS%), mineralization rate (MAR), bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR), and osteoid seam width (OSW) were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus