Limits...
Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

Schröter M, Rusch GM, Barton DN, Blumentrath S, Nordén B - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area.Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities.Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim/Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Forest conservation-timber production possibility frontier (PPF).Note that the x-axis (sum of timber production value) starts at 6.00 billion NOK. The maps indicate current reserve network (A) and selected (B–E) available, partial and non-use areas when current reserves are not locked-in. The spatially explicit solutions (policyscapes) are shown as maps on the trade-off between net revenues from timber production and average conservation target achievement, along a range of opportunity costs constraints.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230974&req=5

pone-0112557-g003: Forest conservation-timber production possibility frontier (PPF).Note that the x-axis (sum of timber production value) starts at 6.00 billion NOK. The maps indicate current reserve network (A) and selected (B–E) available, partial and non-use areas when current reserves are not locked-in. The spatially explicit solutions (policyscapes) are shown as maps on the trade-off between net revenues from timber production and average conservation target achievement, along a range of opportunity costs constraints.

Mentions: The PPF shows a concave curve representing the trade-off between timber production and conservation of biodiversity and non-forestry related ES (Figure 3). Creating a reserve network to achieve the conservation targets comes at a cost of timber production. The marginal increase in conservation target achievement is initially high when the current constraint on conservation cost is relaxed (i.e. moving left in Figure 3). This marginal conservation gain decreases more rapidly after having passed a cost constraint of about 40% of the total cost required to achieve 100% of the overall conservation target. The current policyscape (black square) lies under the PPF curve, meaning that more cost-effective policyscape configurations than the current one are possible. This means that higher average target achievement could hypothetically be realised at current levels of timber production, or that the same target could be achieved at lower costs. At the same time, the location of the current policyscape shows a strong preference of decisions towards timber production. Consequently, the conservation targets we set in our scenario are barely met by the current reserve system (average achievement 9.1%).


Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

Schröter M, Rusch GM, Barton DN, Blumentrath S, Nordén B - PLoS ONE (2014)

Forest conservation-timber production possibility frontier (PPF).Note that the x-axis (sum of timber production value) starts at 6.00 billion NOK. The maps indicate current reserve network (A) and selected (B–E) available, partial and non-use areas when current reserves are not locked-in. The spatially explicit solutions (policyscapes) are shown as maps on the trade-off between net revenues from timber production and average conservation target achievement, along a range of opportunity costs constraints.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230974&req=5

pone-0112557-g003: Forest conservation-timber production possibility frontier (PPF).Note that the x-axis (sum of timber production value) starts at 6.00 billion NOK. The maps indicate current reserve network (A) and selected (B–E) available, partial and non-use areas when current reserves are not locked-in. The spatially explicit solutions (policyscapes) are shown as maps on the trade-off between net revenues from timber production and average conservation target achievement, along a range of opportunity costs constraints.
Mentions: The PPF shows a concave curve representing the trade-off between timber production and conservation of biodiversity and non-forestry related ES (Figure 3). Creating a reserve network to achieve the conservation targets comes at a cost of timber production. The marginal increase in conservation target achievement is initially high when the current constraint on conservation cost is relaxed (i.e. moving left in Figure 3). This marginal conservation gain decreases more rapidly after having passed a cost constraint of about 40% of the total cost required to achieve 100% of the overall conservation target. The current policyscape (black square) lies under the PPF curve, meaning that more cost-effective policyscape configurations than the current one are possible. This means that higher average target achievement could hypothetically be realised at current levels of timber production, or that the same target could be achieved at lower costs. At the same time, the location of the current policyscape shows a strong preference of decisions towards timber production. Consequently, the conservation targets we set in our scenario are barely met by the current reserve system (average achievement 9.1%).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area.Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities.Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim/Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus