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Vomiting Larry: a simulated vomiting system for assessing environmental contamination from projectile vomiting related to norovirus infection.

Makison Booth C - J Infect Prev (2014)

Bottom Line: Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread).The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve.Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microbiology Team, Health & Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, UK.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases such as norovirus can induce emesis (vomiting), which can be of a projectile nature. Although studies have been carried out on transmission, prevalence and decontamination of such micro-organisms within various environments, little is known about the extent to which the surrounding environment is contaminated when an individual vomits. This is an important consideration for infection control purposes. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry) to be used for assessing the extent to which projected fluid can contaminate the environment. Vomiting Larry was set up within a Controlled Atmosphere Chamber (CAC) facility at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). Simulated vomiting was undertaken using water as a vomitus substitute containing a fluorescent marker enabling small splashes, ordinarily missed, to be visualised using UV lighting. Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread). The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve. Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Rebounding fluid (highlighted at A) from the initial impact during simulated vomiting (scale: grid sections = 20 cm x 20 cm) creates widespread splash.a: Rebounding splash upon fluid impact with floor surface
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fig3-1757177414545390: Rebounding fluid (highlighted at A) from the initial impact during simulated vomiting (scale: grid sections = 20 cm x 20 cm) creates widespread splash.a: Rebounding splash upon fluid impact with floor surface

Mentions: Figure 3 highlights fluid rebound from the floor after the initial impact. Splash and droplets were created by the rebounding fluid, which spread further still from the main impact site and/or collided with the contra flow of fluid still being projected from the mouth of the system to the floor. Impacted fluid continued to move during and after simulated vomiting (Figure 3a). Once settled, the main bulk of the fluid filled an area 1.2 m × 1.6 m. For each experiment splash was identified on the wall directly opposite the front of the system and on the two adjacent walls covering a total distance >3 m longitudinal spread and >2.2 m lateral spread. The full extent to which the fluid was distributed is illustrated in Figure 4. Examination of the expelled fluid on the floor of the CAC revealed that only the main bulk of the liquid and major splashes were visible under standard white lighting. Smaller splashes and droplets were difficult to identify without the aid of UV lighting.


Vomiting Larry: a simulated vomiting system for assessing environmental contamination from projectile vomiting related to norovirus infection.

Makison Booth C - J Infect Prev (2014)

Rebounding fluid (highlighted at A) from the initial impact during simulated vomiting (scale: grid sections = 20 cm x 20 cm) creates widespread splash.a: Rebounding splash upon fluid impact with floor surface
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230971&req=5

fig3-1757177414545390: Rebounding fluid (highlighted at A) from the initial impact during simulated vomiting (scale: grid sections = 20 cm x 20 cm) creates widespread splash.a: Rebounding splash upon fluid impact with floor surface
Mentions: Figure 3 highlights fluid rebound from the floor after the initial impact. Splash and droplets were created by the rebounding fluid, which spread further still from the main impact site and/or collided with the contra flow of fluid still being projected from the mouth of the system to the floor. Impacted fluid continued to move during and after simulated vomiting (Figure 3a). Once settled, the main bulk of the fluid filled an area 1.2 m × 1.6 m. For each experiment splash was identified on the wall directly opposite the front of the system and on the two adjacent walls covering a total distance >3 m longitudinal spread and >2.2 m lateral spread. The full extent to which the fluid was distributed is illustrated in Figure 4. Examination of the expelled fluid on the floor of the CAC revealed that only the main bulk of the liquid and major splashes were visible under standard white lighting. Smaller splashes and droplets were difficult to identify without the aid of UV lighting.

Bottom Line: Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread).The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve.Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microbiology Team, Health & Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, UK.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases such as norovirus can induce emesis (vomiting), which can be of a projectile nature. Although studies have been carried out on transmission, prevalence and decontamination of such micro-organisms within various environments, little is known about the extent to which the surrounding environment is contaminated when an individual vomits. This is an important consideration for infection control purposes. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry) to be used for assessing the extent to which projected fluid can contaminate the environment. Vomiting Larry was set up within a Controlled Atmosphere Chamber (CAC) facility at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). Simulated vomiting was undertaken using water as a vomitus substitute containing a fluorescent marker enabling small splashes, ordinarily missed, to be visualised using UV lighting. Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread). The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve. Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus