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Vomiting Larry: a simulated vomiting system for assessing environmental contamination from projectile vomiting related to norovirus infection.

Makison Booth C - J Infect Prev (2014)

Bottom Line: Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread).The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve.Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microbiology Team, Health & Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, UK.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases such as norovirus can induce emesis (vomiting), which can be of a projectile nature. Although studies have been carried out on transmission, prevalence and decontamination of such micro-organisms within various environments, little is known about the extent to which the surrounding environment is contaminated when an individual vomits. This is an important consideration for infection control purposes. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry) to be used for assessing the extent to which projected fluid can contaminate the environment. Vomiting Larry was set up within a Controlled Atmosphere Chamber (CAC) facility at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). Simulated vomiting was undertaken using water as a vomitus substitute containing a fluorescent marker enabling small splashes, ordinarily missed, to be visualised using UV lighting. Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread). The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve. Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Images (a–-e) are sequential photographs of simulated vomiting taken 10 ms apart under UV light.a: Release of droplets prior to main bulk fluidb: ‘Strings’ of fluid and droplet falloutc: Mid flow of fluidd: Less droplet formatione: Fluid travelling less far towards end of simulation
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fig2-1757177414545390: Images (a–-e) are sequential photographs of simulated vomiting taken 10 ms apart under UV light.a: Release of droplets prior to main bulk fluidb: ‘Strings’ of fluid and droplet falloutc: Mid flow of fluidd: Less droplet formatione: Fluid travelling less far towards end of simulation

Mentions: Sequential images of simulated projectile vomiting are shown in Figure 2. Many droplets were released from Vomiting Larry prior to the appearance of the main bulk of the fluid (Figure 2a), which were projected forwards and outwards from the orifice. As the main bulk of the fluid exited the mouth, fluid collided creating ‘strings’ of fluid and droplets, some of which were directed back towards the system (Figure 2b). Droplets tended to fall out as they lost momentum, which created a cloud of droplets beneath and around the main flow of the fluid (Figure 2b). During mid-flow, the bulk fluid appeared more directional, with less droplet formation (Figure 2c and d). Towards the end of the simulated vomiting episode, the fluid travelled less far before fallout occurred, as the pressure decreased (Figure 2e).


Vomiting Larry: a simulated vomiting system for assessing environmental contamination from projectile vomiting related to norovirus infection.

Makison Booth C - J Infect Prev (2014)

Images (a–-e) are sequential photographs of simulated vomiting taken 10 ms apart under UV light.a: Release of droplets prior to main bulk fluidb: ‘Strings’ of fluid and droplet falloutc: Mid flow of fluidd: Less droplet formatione: Fluid travelling less far towards end of simulation
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230971&req=5

fig2-1757177414545390: Images (a–-e) are sequential photographs of simulated vomiting taken 10 ms apart under UV light.a: Release of droplets prior to main bulk fluidb: ‘Strings’ of fluid and droplet falloutc: Mid flow of fluidd: Less droplet formatione: Fluid travelling less far towards end of simulation
Mentions: Sequential images of simulated projectile vomiting are shown in Figure 2. Many droplets were released from Vomiting Larry prior to the appearance of the main bulk of the fluid (Figure 2a), which were projected forwards and outwards from the orifice. As the main bulk of the fluid exited the mouth, fluid collided creating ‘strings’ of fluid and droplets, some of which were directed back towards the system (Figure 2b). Droplets tended to fall out as they lost momentum, which created a cloud of droplets beneath and around the main flow of the fluid (Figure 2b). During mid-flow, the bulk fluid appeared more directional, with less droplet formation (Figure 2c and d). Towards the end of the simulated vomiting episode, the fluid travelled less far before fallout occurred, as the pressure decreased (Figure 2e).

Bottom Line: Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread).The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve.Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microbiology Team, Health & Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, UK.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases such as norovirus can induce emesis (vomiting), which can be of a projectile nature. Although studies have been carried out on transmission, prevalence and decontamination of such micro-organisms within various environments, little is known about the extent to which the surrounding environment is contaminated when an individual vomits. This is an important consideration for infection control purposes. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry) to be used for assessing the extent to which projected fluid can contaminate the environment. Vomiting Larry was set up within a Controlled Atmosphere Chamber (CAC) facility at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). Simulated vomiting was undertaken using water as a vomitus substitute containing a fluorescent marker enabling small splashes, ordinarily missed, to be visualised using UV lighting. Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread). The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve. Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus