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Vomiting Larry: a simulated vomiting system for assessing environmental contamination from projectile vomiting related to norovirus infection.

Makison Booth C - J Infect Prev (2014)

Bottom Line: Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread).The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve.Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microbiology Team, Health & Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, UK.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases such as norovirus can induce emesis (vomiting), which can be of a projectile nature. Although studies have been carried out on transmission, prevalence and decontamination of such micro-organisms within various environments, little is known about the extent to which the surrounding environment is contaminated when an individual vomits. This is an important consideration for infection control purposes. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry) to be used for assessing the extent to which projected fluid can contaminate the environment. Vomiting Larry was set up within a Controlled Atmosphere Chamber (CAC) facility at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). Simulated vomiting was undertaken using water as a vomitus substitute containing a fluorescent marker enabling small splashes, ordinarily missed, to be visualised using UV lighting. Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread). The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve. Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry)a: Airway Larryb: Blocked off bronchioles of Airway Larryc: Outlet pipe connected to Airway Larryd: Cylinder containing 1 L of fluide: Pistonf: Air inlet to push piston downg: Pneumatic ramh: Air inlet to push piston up
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fig1-1757177414545390: The simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry)a: Airway Larryb: Blocked off bronchioles of Airway Larryc: Outlet pipe connected to Airway Larryd: Cylinder containing 1 L of fluide: Pistonf: Air inlet to push piston downg: Pneumatic ramh: Air inlet to push piston up

Mentions: The lungs and stomach in Airway Larry were plastic attachments and not necessary for this research. The ends of the tubes representing the primary bronchi were blocked with 16 mm diameter stainless steel blanks fixed in place by hose clips. The tube representing the oesophagus from the manikin head was attached to the outlet tube on top of the cylinder and fixed by means of a hose clip. The piston pump and manikin head were then mounted to a wooden frame made from 18 mm thick plywood, which allowed the whole unit to be freestanding. On completion, the simulated vomiting system (now termed Vomiting Larry) stood 1.6 m from the floor to the top of the manikin head (Figure 1).


Vomiting Larry: a simulated vomiting system for assessing environmental contamination from projectile vomiting related to norovirus infection.

Makison Booth C - J Infect Prev (2014)

The simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry)a: Airway Larryb: Blocked off bronchioles of Airway Larryc: Outlet pipe connected to Airway Larryd: Cylinder containing 1 L of fluide: Pistonf: Air inlet to push piston downg: Pneumatic ramh: Air inlet to push piston up
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230971&req=5

fig1-1757177414545390: The simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry)a: Airway Larryb: Blocked off bronchioles of Airway Larryc: Outlet pipe connected to Airway Larryd: Cylinder containing 1 L of fluide: Pistonf: Air inlet to push piston downg: Pneumatic ramh: Air inlet to push piston up
Mentions: The lungs and stomach in Airway Larry were plastic attachments and not necessary for this research. The ends of the tubes representing the primary bronchi were blocked with 16 mm diameter stainless steel blanks fixed in place by hose clips. The tube representing the oesophagus from the manikin head was attached to the outlet tube on top of the cylinder and fixed by means of a hose clip. The piston pump and manikin head were then mounted to a wooden frame made from 18 mm thick plywood, which allowed the whole unit to be freestanding. On completion, the simulated vomiting system (now termed Vomiting Larry) stood 1.6 m from the floor to the top of the manikin head (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread).The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve.Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microbiology Team, Health & Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, UK.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases such as norovirus can induce emesis (vomiting), which can be of a projectile nature. Although studies have been carried out on transmission, prevalence and decontamination of such micro-organisms within various environments, little is known about the extent to which the surrounding environment is contaminated when an individual vomits. This is an important consideration for infection control purposes. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry) to be used for assessing the extent to which projected fluid can contaminate the environment. Vomiting Larry was set up within a Controlled Atmosphere Chamber (CAC) facility at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). Simulated vomiting was undertaken using water as a vomitus substitute containing a fluorescent marker enabling small splashes, ordinarily missed, to be visualised using UV lighting. Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread). The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve. Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus