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Long-distance retinoid signaling in the zebra finch brain.

Roeske TC, Scharff C, Olson CR, Nshdejan A, Mello CV - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Our results show that (1) ATRA is more broadly distributed in the brain than previously predicted by the spatially restricted distribution of zRalDH transcripts.This could be due to long-range transport of zRalDH enzyme between different nuclei of the song system: Experimental lesions of putative zRalDH peptide source regions diminish ATRA-induced transcription in target regions. (2) Four telencephalic song nuclei express different and specific subsets of retinoid-related receptors and could be targets of retinoid regulation; in the case of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN), receptor expression is dynamically regulated in a circadian and age-dependent manner. (3) High-order auditory areas exhibit a complex distribution of transcripts representing ATRA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and could also be a target of retinoid signaling.Together, our survey across multiple connected song nuclei and auditory brain regions underscores the prominent role of retinoid signaling in modulating the circuitry that underlies the acquisition and production of learned vocalizations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the main active metabolite of vitamin A, is a powerful signaling molecule that regulates large-scale morphogenetic processes during vertebrate embryonic development, but is also involved post-natally in regulating neural plasticity and cognition. In songbirds, it plays an important role in the maturation of learned song. The distribution of the ATRA-synthesizing enzyme, zRalDH, and of ATRA receptors (RARs) have been described, but information on the distribution of other components of the retinoid signaling pathway is still lacking. To address this gap, we have determined the expression patterns of two obligatory RAR co-receptors, the retinoid X receptors (RXR) α and γ, and of the three ATRA-degrading cytochromes CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1. We have also studied the distribution of zRalDH protein using immunohistochemistry, and generated a refined map of ATRA localization, using a modified reporter cell assay to examine entire brain sections. Our results show that (1) ATRA is more broadly distributed in the brain than previously predicted by the spatially restricted distribution of zRalDH transcripts. This could be due to long-range transport of zRalDH enzyme between different nuclei of the song system: Experimental lesions of putative zRalDH peptide source regions diminish ATRA-induced transcription in target regions. (2) Four telencephalic song nuclei express different and specific subsets of retinoid-related receptors and could be targets of retinoid regulation; in the case of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN), receptor expression is dynamically regulated in a circadian and age-dependent manner. (3) High-order auditory areas exhibit a complex distribution of transcripts representing ATRA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and could also be a target of retinoid signaling. Together, our survey across multiple connected song nuclei and auditory brain regions underscores the prominent role of retinoid signaling in modulating the circuitry that underlies the acquisition and production of learned vocalizations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

RXRα expression in adult male zebra finch brain.Drawings on the left depict brain areas and nuclei of serial parasagittal sections. The corresponding sections on the right were processed for in situ hybridization (ISH) for RXRα. For all images, anterior is to the right and dorsal is up; medial to lateral levels are represented from top to bottom. Scale bar  = 2 mm (all panels). For abbreviations, see table 1.
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pone-0111722-g003: RXRα expression in adult male zebra finch brain.Drawings on the left depict brain areas and nuclei of serial parasagittal sections. The corresponding sections on the right were processed for in situ hybridization (ISH) for RXRα. For all images, anterior is to the right and dorsal is up; medial to lateral levels are represented from top to bottom. Scale bar  = 2 mm (all panels). For abbreviations, see table 1.

Mentions: In adult males, RXRα expression was widespread, resembling the distributions of RARα, β and γ [29] rather than the more restricted expression of zRalDH [21], [25], [26]. All pallial regions (hyperpallium, mesopallium, nidopallium, and arcopallium) expressed moderate and uniform levels of RXRα, whereas expression was lower in the hippocampal formation, and very low in the striatum, globus pallidus, entopallium and Field L2a (fig. 3). Expression in the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla was low to non-detectable, except for both subdivisions of the nucleus spiriformis (fig. 3.D and fig. S4) and the dopaminergic VTA/SN regions (fig. 3.A and fig. S4). In the cerebellum, the granule cell layer expressed RXRα (fig. 3.A–C), whereas labeling was absent in the molecular layer.


Long-distance retinoid signaling in the zebra finch brain.

Roeske TC, Scharff C, Olson CR, Nshdejan A, Mello CV - PLoS ONE (2014)

RXRα expression in adult male zebra finch brain.Drawings on the left depict brain areas and nuclei of serial parasagittal sections. The corresponding sections on the right were processed for in situ hybridization (ISH) for RXRα. For all images, anterior is to the right and dorsal is up; medial to lateral levels are represented from top to bottom. Scale bar  = 2 mm (all panels). For abbreviations, see table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230966&req=5

pone-0111722-g003: RXRα expression in adult male zebra finch brain.Drawings on the left depict brain areas and nuclei of serial parasagittal sections. The corresponding sections on the right were processed for in situ hybridization (ISH) for RXRα. For all images, anterior is to the right and dorsal is up; medial to lateral levels are represented from top to bottom. Scale bar  = 2 mm (all panels). For abbreviations, see table 1.
Mentions: In adult males, RXRα expression was widespread, resembling the distributions of RARα, β and γ [29] rather than the more restricted expression of zRalDH [21], [25], [26]. All pallial regions (hyperpallium, mesopallium, nidopallium, and arcopallium) expressed moderate and uniform levels of RXRα, whereas expression was lower in the hippocampal formation, and very low in the striatum, globus pallidus, entopallium and Field L2a (fig. 3). Expression in the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla was low to non-detectable, except for both subdivisions of the nucleus spiriformis (fig. 3.D and fig. S4) and the dopaminergic VTA/SN regions (fig. 3.A and fig. S4). In the cerebellum, the granule cell layer expressed RXRα (fig. 3.A–C), whereas labeling was absent in the molecular layer.

Bottom Line: Our results show that (1) ATRA is more broadly distributed in the brain than previously predicted by the spatially restricted distribution of zRalDH transcripts.This could be due to long-range transport of zRalDH enzyme between different nuclei of the song system: Experimental lesions of putative zRalDH peptide source regions diminish ATRA-induced transcription in target regions. (2) Four telencephalic song nuclei express different and specific subsets of retinoid-related receptors and could be targets of retinoid regulation; in the case of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN), receptor expression is dynamically regulated in a circadian and age-dependent manner. (3) High-order auditory areas exhibit a complex distribution of transcripts representing ATRA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and could also be a target of retinoid signaling.Together, our survey across multiple connected song nuclei and auditory brain regions underscores the prominent role of retinoid signaling in modulating the circuitry that underlies the acquisition and production of learned vocalizations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the main active metabolite of vitamin A, is a powerful signaling molecule that regulates large-scale morphogenetic processes during vertebrate embryonic development, but is also involved post-natally in regulating neural plasticity and cognition. In songbirds, it plays an important role in the maturation of learned song. The distribution of the ATRA-synthesizing enzyme, zRalDH, and of ATRA receptors (RARs) have been described, but information on the distribution of other components of the retinoid signaling pathway is still lacking. To address this gap, we have determined the expression patterns of two obligatory RAR co-receptors, the retinoid X receptors (RXR) α and γ, and of the three ATRA-degrading cytochromes CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1. We have also studied the distribution of zRalDH protein using immunohistochemistry, and generated a refined map of ATRA localization, using a modified reporter cell assay to examine entire brain sections. Our results show that (1) ATRA is more broadly distributed in the brain than previously predicted by the spatially restricted distribution of zRalDH transcripts. This could be due to long-range transport of zRalDH enzyme between different nuclei of the song system: Experimental lesions of putative zRalDH peptide source regions diminish ATRA-induced transcription in target regions. (2) Four telencephalic song nuclei express different and specific subsets of retinoid-related receptors and could be targets of retinoid regulation; in the case of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN), receptor expression is dynamically regulated in a circadian and age-dependent manner. (3) High-order auditory areas exhibit a complex distribution of transcripts representing ATRA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and could also be a target of retinoid signaling. Together, our survey across multiple connected song nuclei and auditory brain regions underscores the prominent role of retinoid signaling in modulating the circuitry that underlies the acquisition and production of learned vocalizations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus