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Progranulin facilitates conversion and function of regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions.

Wei F, Zhang Y, Zhao W, Yu X, Liu CJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff).In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development.Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America; Institute of Pathogenic Biology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, China.

ABSTRACT
The progranulin (PGRN) is known to protect regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a negative regulation by TNF-α, and its levels are elevated in various kinds of autoimmune diseases. Whether PGRN directly regulates the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (iTreg), and whether PGRN affects the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, however, remain unknown. In this study we provide evidences demonstrating that PGRN is able to stimulate the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into iTreg in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, PGRN showed synergistic effects with TGF-β1 on the induction of iTreg. PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff). In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development. Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2. Collectively, this study reveals that PGRN directly regulates the numbers and function of Tregs under inflammatory conditions, and provides new insight into the immune regulatory mechanism of PGRN in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune-related diseases.

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PGRN deficiency does not alter the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in vivo.Flow cytometric evaluation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in one-, three-, and six-week-old wild type (WT) and PGRN-deficient mice. (A) The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in thymus from one-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (B) The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in thymus from one-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (C) The proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in spleen from three-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (D) CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymph nodes from three-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (E) The proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in spleen from six-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (F) CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymph nodes from six-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. All data was representative of three mice per group and indicated as mean ± SEM.
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pone-0112110-g001: PGRN deficiency does not alter the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in vivo.Flow cytometric evaluation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in one-, three-, and six-week-old wild type (WT) and PGRN-deficient mice. (A) The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in thymus from one-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (B) The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in thymus from one-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (C) The proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in spleen from three-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (D) CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymph nodes from three-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (E) The proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in spleen from six-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (F) CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymph nodes from six-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. All data was representative of three mice per group and indicated as mean ± SEM.

Mentions: To determine the role of PGRN in the development of naturally CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, we used flow cytometry to analyze the numbers of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymphocytes of thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes from one-, three-, and six-week-old wild type and PGRN-deficient mice. As shown in Fig. 1A, one-week-old wild type and PGRN-deficient mice have comparable proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in thymus (p>0.05), and no significant difference in the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in thymus were found (p>0.05) (Fig. 1B). Equivalent numbers of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells were found in the spleen and lymph nodes in three- and six-week-old PGRN-deficient mice, compared with wild type mice (p>0.05) (Fig. 1C–F). Thus, the results suggest that the absence of PGRN may not affect the generation of naturally CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells during development.


Progranulin facilitates conversion and function of regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions.

Wei F, Zhang Y, Zhao W, Yu X, Liu CJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

PGRN deficiency does not alter the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in vivo.Flow cytometric evaluation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in one-, three-, and six-week-old wild type (WT) and PGRN-deficient mice. (A) The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in thymus from one-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (B) The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in thymus from one-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (C) The proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in spleen from three-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (D) CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymph nodes from three-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (E) The proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in spleen from six-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (F) CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymph nodes from six-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. All data was representative of three mice per group and indicated as mean ± SEM.
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pone-0112110-g001: PGRN deficiency does not alter the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in vivo.Flow cytometric evaluation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in one-, three-, and six-week-old wild type (WT) and PGRN-deficient mice. (A) The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in thymus from one-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (B) The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in thymus from one-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (C) The proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in spleen from three-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (D) CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymph nodes from three-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (E) The proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in spleen from six-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. (F) CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymph nodes from six-week-old C57BL/6 mice and PGRN-deficient mice. All data was representative of three mice per group and indicated as mean ± SEM.
Mentions: To determine the role of PGRN in the development of naturally CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, we used flow cytometry to analyze the numbers of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in lymphocytes of thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes from one-, three-, and six-week-old wild type and PGRN-deficient mice. As shown in Fig. 1A, one-week-old wild type and PGRN-deficient mice have comparable proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in thymus (p>0.05), and no significant difference in the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in thymus were found (p>0.05) (Fig. 1B). Equivalent numbers of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells were found in the spleen and lymph nodes in three- and six-week-old PGRN-deficient mice, compared with wild type mice (p>0.05) (Fig. 1C–F). Thus, the results suggest that the absence of PGRN may not affect the generation of naturally CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells during development.

Bottom Line: PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff).In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development.Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America; Institute of Pathogenic Biology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, China.

ABSTRACT
The progranulin (PGRN) is known to protect regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a negative regulation by TNF-α, and its levels are elevated in various kinds of autoimmune diseases. Whether PGRN directly regulates the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (iTreg), and whether PGRN affects the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, however, remain unknown. In this study we provide evidences demonstrating that PGRN is able to stimulate the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into iTreg in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, PGRN showed synergistic effects with TGF-β1 on the induction of iTreg. PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff). In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development. Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2. Collectively, this study reveals that PGRN directly regulates the numbers and function of Tregs under inflammatory conditions, and provides new insight into the immune regulatory mechanism of PGRN in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune-related diseases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus