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The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

Kok G, van Rijsbergen G, Burger H, Elgersma H, Riper H, Cuijpers P, Dekker J, Smit F, Bockting C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress.No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.

Method: Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138).

Results: We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55). No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.

Conclusion: No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.

Trial registration: Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

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pone-0111711-g001: Consort Flow Diagram of participant flow.

Mentions: Figure 1 provides an overview of the number of all the participants that were assessed and randomized to the trial conditions. Of the total group, n = 138 participants were assigned to the TAU group (n = 82, Trial B) and continuation of ADM group (n = 56, Trial A), of which n = 36 (26%) participants suffered at least one childhood adversity. Table 1 shows that most participants were female (68.1%) and had a mean age of 48.16 years (SD  = 10.4). Participants experienced a median of four previous depressive episodes (IQR  = 3.0). The baseline level of depressive symptoms was low, with a mean score of 3.53 (SD  = 2.8) on the HDRS17[39], and a mean of 17.61 (SD  = 10.2) on the IDS-SR30[46]. The trials did not differ on any of the demographic and clinical characteristics, except for ADM use (p<.001).


The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

Kok G, van Rijsbergen G, Burger H, Elgersma H, Riper H, Cuijpers P, Dekker J, Smit F, Bockting C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Consort Flow Diagram of participant flow.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230942&req=5

pone-0111711-g001: Consort Flow Diagram of participant flow.
Mentions: Figure 1 provides an overview of the number of all the participants that were assessed and randomized to the trial conditions. Of the total group, n = 138 participants were assigned to the TAU group (n = 82, Trial B) and continuation of ADM group (n = 56, Trial A), of which n = 36 (26%) participants suffered at least one childhood adversity. Table 1 shows that most participants were female (68.1%) and had a mean age of 48.16 years (SD  = 10.4). Participants experienced a median of four previous depressive episodes (IQR  = 3.0). The baseline level of depressive symptoms was low, with a mean score of 3.53 (SD  = 2.8) on the HDRS17[39], and a mean of 17.61 (SD  = 10.2) on the IDS-SR30[46]. The trials did not differ on any of the demographic and clinical characteristics, except for ADM use (p<.001).

Bottom Line: We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress.No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.

Method: Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138).

Results: We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55). No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.

Conclusion: No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.

Trial registration: Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus