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Coryphoid palm leaf fossils from the Maastrichtian-Danian of Central India with remarks on phytogeography of the Coryphoideae (Arecaceae).

Srivastava R, Srivastava G, Dilcher DL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae.The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian.The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cenozoic Palaeoflorist Laboratory, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road, Lucknow- 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Premise of research: A large number of fossil coryphoid palm wood and fruits have been reported from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India. We document the oldest well-preserved and very rare costapalmate palm leaves and inflorescence like structures from the same horizon.

Methodology: A number of specimens were collected from Maastrichtian-Danian sediments of the Deccan Intertrappean beds, Ghughua, near Umaria, Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae.

Pivotal results: Sabalites dindoriensis sp. nov. is described based on fossil leaf specimens including basal to apical parts. These are the oldest coryphoid fossil palm leaves from India as well as, at the time of deposition, from the Gondwana- derived continents.

Conclusions: The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian. The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Palaeogeographic map at 65.5 Ma [21] showing possible dispersal path of Coryphoideae from Europe to India via Africa (red broken line).
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pone-0111738-g008: Palaeogeographic map at 65.5 Ma [21] showing possible dispersal path of Coryphoideae from Europe to India via Africa (red broken line).

Mentions: Phylogenetic and molecular clock studies indicate that the palms originated and diversified in Laurasia around 100 Ma [1], [10] while the coryphoids diverged at about 87 Ma (95% HPD 86–88) which was constrained by the calibration point from a Sabalites fossil [9], [10] and diversified during the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic in boreotropical regions [5], [86]. The subfamily Coryphoideae includes four major clades including (1) New world thatch palm clade consisting of tribes Sabaleae and Cryosophileae; (2) Syncarpous clade consisting of tribes Chuniophoeniceae, Caryoteae, Coryphae and Borasseae; (3) tribe Phoeniceae and (4) tribe Trachycarpeae [5], [87]. Based on molecular phylogenetic analysis, Baker and Couvreur [9] suggested that the New world thatch palm clade diverged at 55 Ma (95% HPD 39–72) in North America. The Syncarpous clade diverged in Eurasia at 66 Ma (95% HPD 51–80). The tribe Phoeniaceae diverged from Trachycarpeae around 49 Ma (95% HPD 33–65) in Eurasia. Out of the four aforesaid clades, the syncarpous clade is the earliest diverging clade (66 Ma) that also corresponds to the age of Deccan Intertrappean beds to which our fossils belong. In syncarpous clade, the Caryoteae can be differentiated from the present fossil by having pinnate or bipinnate leaves while amongst Chuniophoeniceae, Coryphae and Borasseae the fossil probably shows near resemblance with floral axis of Hyphaene (Borasseae) by having the characteristic shape and striate bractioles which also corroborate with the previous fossil records of Hyphaene from the same horizon [15], [18], [20]. In the subsequent study Baker and Couvreur [10] suggested that only one dispersal event occurred from Indian Ocean into India (including Sri Lanka) during the Miocene but the palm fossils reported from the Maastrichtian–Danian sediments of Deccan Intertrappean beds [39] opens a new dispersal route (Fig. 8).


Coryphoid palm leaf fossils from the Maastrichtian-Danian of Central India with remarks on phytogeography of the Coryphoideae (Arecaceae).

Srivastava R, Srivastava G, Dilcher DL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Palaeogeographic map at 65.5 Ma [21] showing possible dispersal path of Coryphoideae from Europe to India via Africa (red broken line).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230940&req=5

pone-0111738-g008: Palaeogeographic map at 65.5 Ma [21] showing possible dispersal path of Coryphoideae from Europe to India via Africa (red broken line).
Mentions: Phylogenetic and molecular clock studies indicate that the palms originated and diversified in Laurasia around 100 Ma [1], [10] while the coryphoids diverged at about 87 Ma (95% HPD 86–88) which was constrained by the calibration point from a Sabalites fossil [9], [10] and diversified during the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic in boreotropical regions [5], [86]. The subfamily Coryphoideae includes four major clades including (1) New world thatch palm clade consisting of tribes Sabaleae and Cryosophileae; (2) Syncarpous clade consisting of tribes Chuniophoeniceae, Caryoteae, Coryphae and Borasseae; (3) tribe Phoeniceae and (4) tribe Trachycarpeae [5], [87]. Based on molecular phylogenetic analysis, Baker and Couvreur [9] suggested that the New world thatch palm clade diverged at 55 Ma (95% HPD 39–72) in North America. The Syncarpous clade diverged in Eurasia at 66 Ma (95% HPD 51–80). The tribe Phoeniaceae diverged from Trachycarpeae around 49 Ma (95% HPD 33–65) in Eurasia. Out of the four aforesaid clades, the syncarpous clade is the earliest diverging clade (66 Ma) that also corresponds to the age of Deccan Intertrappean beds to which our fossils belong. In syncarpous clade, the Caryoteae can be differentiated from the present fossil by having pinnate or bipinnate leaves while amongst Chuniophoeniceae, Coryphae and Borasseae the fossil probably shows near resemblance with floral axis of Hyphaene (Borasseae) by having the characteristic shape and striate bractioles which also corroborate with the previous fossil records of Hyphaene from the same horizon [15], [18], [20]. In the subsequent study Baker and Couvreur [10] suggested that only one dispersal event occurred from Indian Ocean into India (including Sri Lanka) during the Miocene but the palm fossils reported from the Maastrichtian–Danian sediments of Deccan Intertrappean beds [39] opens a new dispersal route (Fig. 8).

Bottom Line: The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae.The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian.The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cenozoic Palaeoflorist Laboratory, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road, Lucknow- 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Premise of research: A large number of fossil coryphoid palm wood and fruits have been reported from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India. We document the oldest well-preserved and very rare costapalmate palm leaves and inflorescence like structures from the same horizon.

Methodology: A number of specimens were collected from Maastrichtian-Danian sediments of the Deccan Intertrappean beds, Ghughua, near Umaria, Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae.

Pivotal results: Sabalites dindoriensis sp. nov. is described based on fossil leaf specimens including basal to apical parts. These are the oldest coryphoid fossil palm leaves from India as well as, at the time of deposition, from the Gondwana- derived continents.

Conclusions: The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian. The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus