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Coryphoid palm leaf fossils from the Maastrichtian-Danian of Central India with remarks on phytogeography of the Coryphoideae (Arecaceae).

Srivastava R, Srivastava G, Dilcher DL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae.The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian.The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cenozoic Palaeoflorist Laboratory, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road, Lucknow- 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Premise of research: A large number of fossil coryphoid palm wood and fruits have been reported from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India. We document the oldest well-preserved and very rare costapalmate palm leaves and inflorescence like structures from the same horizon.

Methodology: A number of specimens were collected from Maastrichtian-Danian sediments of the Deccan Intertrappean beds, Ghughua, near Umaria, Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae.

Pivotal results: Sabalites dindoriensis sp. nov. is described based on fossil leaf specimens including basal to apical parts. These are the oldest coryphoid fossil palm leaves from India as well as, at the time of deposition, from the Gondwana- derived continents.

Conclusions: The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian. The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

World map showing modern distribution of Coryphoideae [5].
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pone-0111738-g007: World map showing modern distribution of Coryphoideae [5].

Mentions: Palms are largely distributed and diversified in tropical areas [5], [76] with 90% of the species diversity restricted to tropical rainforest [1]. They are much less prominent and diverse in temperate regions [5], [77], [78], thus showing very restricted frost tolerance [77]. The low frost tolerance of palms is considered to be an evolutionarily conserved trait. Their architecture and more notably a crown composed of large evergreen leaves [79], which has limited frost resistance [80] and unique stem physiology doesn't allow dormancy [81]. Palms also exhibit a strong latitudinal diversity gradient [82] and need water accessibility for their survival [5], [83]. Palms grow mainly under the top canopy of tropical rain forests along low hills and streams in warm and humid conditions, while a few grow in open areas. They are also dominant in coastal swamps and mangrove forests [8], [84]. Studies of new world palms indicate that solar radiation as related to absolute latitude and water is the main factor that determines the richness of palms species [85]. However, the subfamily Coryphoideae is distributed in a wider range of habitats such as pantropical to warm temperate areas of the world (Fig. 7). It is also found in climatic extremes such as cold and arid regions [5].


Coryphoid palm leaf fossils from the Maastrichtian-Danian of Central India with remarks on phytogeography of the Coryphoideae (Arecaceae).

Srivastava R, Srivastava G, Dilcher DL - PLoS ONE (2014)

World map showing modern distribution of Coryphoideae [5].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230940&req=5

pone-0111738-g007: World map showing modern distribution of Coryphoideae [5].
Mentions: Palms are largely distributed and diversified in tropical areas [5], [76] with 90% of the species diversity restricted to tropical rainforest [1]. They are much less prominent and diverse in temperate regions [5], [77], [78], thus showing very restricted frost tolerance [77]. The low frost tolerance of palms is considered to be an evolutionarily conserved trait. Their architecture and more notably a crown composed of large evergreen leaves [79], which has limited frost resistance [80] and unique stem physiology doesn't allow dormancy [81]. Palms also exhibit a strong latitudinal diversity gradient [82] and need water accessibility for their survival [5], [83]. Palms grow mainly under the top canopy of tropical rain forests along low hills and streams in warm and humid conditions, while a few grow in open areas. They are also dominant in coastal swamps and mangrove forests [8], [84]. Studies of new world palms indicate that solar radiation as related to absolute latitude and water is the main factor that determines the richness of palms species [85]. However, the subfamily Coryphoideae is distributed in a wider range of habitats such as pantropical to warm temperate areas of the world (Fig. 7). It is also found in climatic extremes such as cold and arid regions [5].

Bottom Line: The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae.The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian.The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cenozoic Palaeoflorist Laboratory, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road, Lucknow- 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Premise of research: A large number of fossil coryphoid palm wood and fruits have been reported from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India. We document the oldest well-preserved and very rare costapalmate palm leaves and inflorescence like structures from the same horizon.

Methodology: A number of specimens were collected from Maastrichtian-Danian sediments of the Deccan Intertrappean beds, Ghughua, near Umaria, Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae.

Pivotal results: Sabalites dindoriensis sp. nov. is described based on fossil leaf specimens including basal to apical parts. These are the oldest coryphoid fossil palm leaves from India as well as, at the time of deposition, from the Gondwana- derived continents.

Conclusions: The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian. The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus