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In vivo experiments reveal the good, the bad and the ugly faces of sFlt-1 in pregnancy.

Szalai G, Xu Y, Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Xu Z, Chiang PJ, Ahn H, Sundell B, Plazyo O, Jiang Y, Olive M, Wang B, Jacques SM, Qureshi F, Tarca AL, Erez O, Dong Z, Papp Z, Hassan SS, Hernandez-Andrade E, Than NG - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Truncated msFlt-1(1-3) simulated the preeclampsia-promoting effects of full-length hsFlt-1.MsFlt-1(1-3) had strong effect on maternal endothelium but not on placentas and embryos.In accord with the predominant placental expression of hsFlt-1-e15a and msFlt-1-i13, full-length sFlt-1 may have a role in the regulation of embryonic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Perinatology Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, and Detroit, MI, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt)-1-e15a, a primate-specific sFlt-1-isoform most abundant in the human placenta in preeclampsia, can induce preeclampsia in mice. This study compared the effects of full-length human (h)sFlt-1-e15a with those of truncated mouse (m)sFlt-1(1-3) used in previous preeclampsia studies on pregnancy outcome and clinical symptoms in preeclampsia.

Methods: Mice were injected with adenoviruses or fiber-mutant adenoviruses overexpressing hsFlt-1-e15a, msFlt-1(1-3) or control GFP under the CMV or CYP19A1 promoters on gestational day 8 (GD8) and GD11. Placentas and pups were delivered by cesarean section, and dams were monitored postpartum. Blood pressure was telemetrically recorded. Urine samples were collected with cystocentesis and examined for albumin/creatinine ratios. Tissue specimens were evaluated for transgene as well as endogenous mFlt-1 and msFlt-1-i13 expression. H&E-, Jones- and PAS-stained kidney sections were histopathologically examined. Placental GFP expression and aortic ring assays were investigated with confocal microscopy.

Results: Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was elevated before delivery in hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice compared to controls (GD18: ΔMAP = 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.009), while ΔMAP was 12.8 mmHg (GD18, p = 0.005) in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio was higher in hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice than in controls (GD18, p = 0.04; PPD8, p = 0.03), and msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice had marked proteinuria postpartum (PPD8, p = 4 × 10(-5)). Focal glomerular changes were detected in hsFlt-1-e15a and msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice. Aortic ring microvessel outgrowth was decreased in hsFlt-1-e15a (p = 0.007) and msFlt-1(1-3)-treated (p = 0.02) mice. Full-length msFlt-1-i13 expression was unique for the placenta. In hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice, the number of pups (p = 0.046), total weight of living pups (p = 0.04) and maternal weights (p = 0.04) were higher than in controls. These differences were not observed in truncated msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice.

Conclusions: Truncated msFlt-1(1-3) simulated the preeclampsia-promoting effects of full-length hsFlt-1. MsFlt-1(1-3) had strong effect on maternal endothelium but not on placentas and embryos. In contrast, hsFlt-1-e15a induced preeclampsia-like symptoms; however, it also increased litter size. In accord with the predominant placental expression of hsFlt-1-e15a and msFlt-1-i13, full-length sFlt-1 may have a role in the regulation of embryonic development. These observations point to the difference in the biological effects of full-length and truncated sFlt-1 and the changes in the effect of full-length sFlt-1 during pregnancy, and may have important implications in the management of preeclampsia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Blood pressure monitoring.X-axes show gestational days (GDs) and postpartum days (PPDs). Mean arterial pressure changes (ΔMAP) are depicted with blue curves. Blue lines show +/−standard errors. Red curves depict the ΔMAP patterns, fitted from the linear mixed effects model. (A,B) The blood pressure profile over gestation was different in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice from that in GFP-treated mice prior to cesarean delivery (p = 3.7×10−5; ΔMAP at parturition: 12.8 mmHg, p = 0.005). (A,C) The blood pressure profile over gestation in hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice (all subgroups combined) was different from that in GFP-treated controls prior cesarean delivery (p = 4.3×10−4; ΔMAP at parturition: 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.009). (D–F) Among the three sub-groups of hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice, those that received Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a and Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a had the highest increase in ΔMAP on GD15 (Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 11.3 mmHg, p = 0.0007; Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 8.3 mmHg, p = 0.009) and on GD18 (Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 7.4 mmHg, p = 0.09; Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 9.3 mmHg, p = 0.04) compared to controls. The blood pressure was 5 mmHg (GD15) and 6.6 mmHg (GD18) higher in Ad-RGD-CYP-hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice than in control mice; however, p-values did not reach statistical significance (0.14 and 0.16, respectively).
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pone-0110867-g005: Blood pressure monitoring.X-axes show gestational days (GDs) and postpartum days (PPDs). Mean arterial pressure changes (ΔMAP) are depicted with blue curves. Blue lines show +/−standard errors. Red curves depict the ΔMAP patterns, fitted from the linear mixed effects model. (A,B) The blood pressure profile over gestation was different in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice from that in GFP-treated mice prior to cesarean delivery (p = 3.7×10−5; ΔMAP at parturition: 12.8 mmHg, p = 0.005). (A,C) The blood pressure profile over gestation in hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice (all subgroups combined) was different from that in GFP-treated controls prior cesarean delivery (p = 4.3×10−4; ΔMAP at parturition: 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.009). (D–F) Among the three sub-groups of hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice, those that received Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a and Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a had the highest increase in ΔMAP on GD15 (Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 11.3 mmHg, p = 0.0007; Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 8.3 mmHg, p = 0.009) and on GD18 (Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 7.4 mmHg, p = 0.09; Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 9.3 mmHg, p = 0.04) compared to controls. The blood pressure was 5 mmHg (GD15) and 6.6 mmHg (GD18) higher in Ad-RGD-CYP-hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice than in control mice; however, p-values did not reach statistical significance (0.14 and 0.16, respectively).

Mentions: The blood pressure profile over gestation was different in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice from that in GFP-treated mice (p = 3.7×10-5) prior to cesarean delivery. The ΔMAP at GD15 was 11.1 mmHg higher (p = 0.0008) in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice than in control mice, and this difference was even larger on GD18 (ΔMAP: 12.8 mmHg, p = 0.005) (Figure 5A–B). Of interest, one mouse in this group had a very high ΔMAP and a blood pressure of 175/135 mmHg on GD18. In contrast to all other mice in this group, this animal had constantly increasing blood pressure until PPD7 with a peak of 182/146 mmHg, resembling chronic hypertension following preeclampsia. The very high blood pressure values in this mouse skewed the mean MAPs in the postpartum period, causing the increased variance observed in Figure 5B.


In vivo experiments reveal the good, the bad and the ugly faces of sFlt-1 in pregnancy.

Szalai G, Xu Y, Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Xu Z, Chiang PJ, Ahn H, Sundell B, Plazyo O, Jiang Y, Olive M, Wang B, Jacques SM, Qureshi F, Tarca AL, Erez O, Dong Z, Papp Z, Hassan SS, Hernandez-Andrade E, Than NG - PLoS ONE (2014)

Blood pressure monitoring.X-axes show gestational days (GDs) and postpartum days (PPDs). Mean arterial pressure changes (ΔMAP) are depicted with blue curves. Blue lines show +/−standard errors. Red curves depict the ΔMAP patterns, fitted from the linear mixed effects model. (A,B) The blood pressure profile over gestation was different in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice from that in GFP-treated mice prior to cesarean delivery (p = 3.7×10−5; ΔMAP at parturition: 12.8 mmHg, p = 0.005). (A,C) The blood pressure profile over gestation in hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice (all subgroups combined) was different from that in GFP-treated controls prior cesarean delivery (p = 4.3×10−4; ΔMAP at parturition: 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.009). (D–F) Among the three sub-groups of hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice, those that received Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a and Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a had the highest increase in ΔMAP on GD15 (Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 11.3 mmHg, p = 0.0007; Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 8.3 mmHg, p = 0.009) and on GD18 (Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 7.4 mmHg, p = 0.09; Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 9.3 mmHg, p = 0.04) compared to controls. The blood pressure was 5 mmHg (GD15) and 6.6 mmHg (GD18) higher in Ad-RGD-CYP-hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice than in control mice; however, p-values did not reach statistical significance (0.14 and 0.16, respectively).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230935&req=5

pone-0110867-g005: Blood pressure monitoring.X-axes show gestational days (GDs) and postpartum days (PPDs). Mean arterial pressure changes (ΔMAP) are depicted with blue curves. Blue lines show +/−standard errors. Red curves depict the ΔMAP patterns, fitted from the linear mixed effects model. (A,B) The blood pressure profile over gestation was different in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice from that in GFP-treated mice prior to cesarean delivery (p = 3.7×10−5; ΔMAP at parturition: 12.8 mmHg, p = 0.005). (A,C) The blood pressure profile over gestation in hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice (all subgroups combined) was different from that in GFP-treated controls prior cesarean delivery (p = 4.3×10−4; ΔMAP at parturition: 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.009). (D–F) Among the three sub-groups of hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice, those that received Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a and Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a had the highest increase in ΔMAP on GD15 (Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 11.3 mmHg, p = 0.0007; Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 8.3 mmHg, p = 0.009) and on GD18 (Ad-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 7.4 mmHg, p = 0.09; Ad-RGD-CMV-hsFlt-1-e15a: 9.3 mmHg, p = 0.04) compared to controls. The blood pressure was 5 mmHg (GD15) and 6.6 mmHg (GD18) higher in Ad-RGD-CYP-hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice than in control mice; however, p-values did not reach statistical significance (0.14 and 0.16, respectively).
Mentions: The blood pressure profile over gestation was different in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice from that in GFP-treated mice (p = 3.7×10-5) prior to cesarean delivery. The ΔMAP at GD15 was 11.1 mmHg higher (p = 0.0008) in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice than in control mice, and this difference was even larger on GD18 (ΔMAP: 12.8 mmHg, p = 0.005) (Figure 5A–B). Of interest, one mouse in this group had a very high ΔMAP and a blood pressure of 175/135 mmHg on GD18. In contrast to all other mice in this group, this animal had constantly increasing blood pressure until PPD7 with a peak of 182/146 mmHg, resembling chronic hypertension following preeclampsia. The very high blood pressure values in this mouse skewed the mean MAPs in the postpartum period, causing the increased variance observed in Figure 5B.

Bottom Line: Truncated msFlt-1(1-3) simulated the preeclampsia-promoting effects of full-length hsFlt-1.MsFlt-1(1-3) had strong effect on maternal endothelium but not on placentas and embryos.In accord with the predominant placental expression of hsFlt-1-e15a and msFlt-1-i13, full-length sFlt-1 may have a role in the regulation of embryonic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Perinatology Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, and Detroit, MI, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt)-1-e15a, a primate-specific sFlt-1-isoform most abundant in the human placenta in preeclampsia, can induce preeclampsia in mice. This study compared the effects of full-length human (h)sFlt-1-e15a with those of truncated mouse (m)sFlt-1(1-3) used in previous preeclampsia studies on pregnancy outcome and clinical symptoms in preeclampsia.

Methods: Mice were injected with adenoviruses or fiber-mutant adenoviruses overexpressing hsFlt-1-e15a, msFlt-1(1-3) or control GFP under the CMV or CYP19A1 promoters on gestational day 8 (GD8) and GD11. Placentas and pups were delivered by cesarean section, and dams were monitored postpartum. Blood pressure was telemetrically recorded. Urine samples were collected with cystocentesis and examined for albumin/creatinine ratios. Tissue specimens were evaluated for transgene as well as endogenous mFlt-1 and msFlt-1-i13 expression. H&E-, Jones- and PAS-stained kidney sections were histopathologically examined. Placental GFP expression and aortic ring assays were investigated with confocal microscopy.

Results: Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was elevated before delivery in hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice compared to controls (GD18: ΔMAP = 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.009), while ΔMAP was 12.8 mmHg (GD18, p = 0.005) in msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio was higher in hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice than in controls (GD18, p = 0.04; PPD8, p = 0.03), and msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice had marked proteinuria postpartum (PPD8, p = 4 × 10(-5)). Focal glomerular changes were detected in hsFlt-1-e15a and msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice. Aortic ring microvessel outgrowth was decreased in hsFlt-1-e15a (p = 0.007) and msFlt-1(1-3)-treated (p = 0.02) mice. Full-length msFlt-1-i13 expression was unique for the placenta. In hsFlt-1-e15a-treated mice, the number of pups (p = 0.046), total weight of living pups (p = 0.04) and maternal weights (p = 0.04) were higher than in controls. These differences were not observed in truncated msFlt-1(1-3)-treated mice.

Conclusions: Truncated msFlt-1(1-3) simulated the preeclampsia-promoting effects of full-length hsFlt-1. MsFlt-1(1-3) had strong effect on maternal endothelium but not on placentas and embryos. In contrast, hsFlt-1-e15a induced preeclampsia-like symptoms; however, it also increased litter size. In accord with the predominant placental expression of hsFlt-1-e15a and msFlt-1-i13, full-length sFlt-1 may have a role in the regulation of embryonic development. These observations point to the difference in the biological effects of full-length and truncated sFlt-1 and the changes in the effect of full-length sFlt-1 during pregnancy, and may have important implications in the management of preeclampsia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus