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Application of 3-dimensional printing technology to construct an eye model for fundus viewing study.

Xie P, Hu Z, Zhang X, Li X, Gao Z, Yuan D, Liu Q - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software.In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye.The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system.

Methods: We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy.

Results: In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value.

Conclusions: The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

5-degree off-axis modulation transfer function (MTF) curves of four model eyes in ZEMAX.(wavelength: 589.3 nm; pupil diameter: 3 mm; T = tangential; S = sagittal).
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pone-0109373-g004: 5-degree off-axis modulation transfer function (MTF) curves of four model eyes in ZEMAX.(wavelength: 589.3 nm; pupil diameter: 3 mm; T = tangential; S = sagittal).

Mentions: The comparisons of the optical performance among the four model eyes were shown in Figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Spot diagram (Figure 1A) refers to the pattern of rays as they focus on the retina referenced to the chief ray. The RMS(root-mean-square)radius of the spot diagram gives an average level of all the radiuses of the spreading rays. The RMS radius of our schematic eye (1.256 µm) is smaller than Navarro's (1.342 µm) and larger than Bakaraju's (0.771 µm). But the RMS radius of the spot diagram of Arianpour's eye was much larger (25.78 µm). Our schematic model eye possesses the lowest spherical aberration, the coefficient was 0.15 µm, while it is 2.172 µm, 1.025 µm, and −0.794 µm for Navarro's, Bakaraju's and Arianpour's eyes respectively (Figure 1B).


Application of 3-dimensional printing technology to construct an eye model for fundus viewing study.

Xie P, Hu Z, Zhang X, Li X, Gao Z, Yuan D, Liu Q - PLoS ONE (2014)

5-degree off-axis modulation transfer function (MTF) curves of four model eyes in ZEMAX.(wavelength: 589.3 nm; pupil diameter: 3 mm; T = tangential; S = sagittal).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230932&req=5

pone-0109373-g004: 5-degree off-axis modulation transfer function (MTF) curves of four model eyes in ZEMAX.(wavelength: 589.3 nm; pupil diameter: 3 mm; T = tangential; S = sagittal).
Mentions: The comparisons of the optical performance among the four model eyes were shown in Figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Spot diagram (Figure 1A) refers to the pattern of rays as they focus on the retina referenced to the chief ray. The RMS(root-mean-square)radius of the spot diagram gives an average level of all the radiuses of the spreading rays. The RMS radius of our schematic eye (1.256 µm) is smaller than Navarro's (1.342 µm) and larger than Bakaraju's (0.771 µm). But the RMS radius of the spot diagram of Arianpour's eye was much larger (25.78 µm). Our schematic model eye possesses the lowest spherical aberration, the coefficient was 0.15 µm, while it is 2.172 µm, 1.025 µm, and −0.794 µm for Navarro's, Bakaraju's and Arianpour's eyes respectively (Figure 1B).

Bottom Line: Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software.In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye.The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system.

Methods: We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy.

Results: In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value.

Conclusions: The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus