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Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses.

Kim E, Lin Y, Kerney R, Blumenberg L, Bishop C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades.Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations.We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Invertebrate Zoology and Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum likelihood (ML) tree of algal 18S rDNA sequences from egg masses of four amphibian taxa from various North American localities.The data matrix included 1,653 characters and 180 sequences. Newly obtained sequences are bold-faced. ML and MP bootstrap values greater than 50% are shown at corresponding nodes. Subclades I−IV are collapsed into triangles for visual clarity; an un-collapsed version of the tree can be found as Figure S1. Numbers in parentheses indicates the number of sequences obtained and analyzed for the corresponding sample. See Table 1 for naming conventions and GenBank accession numbers.
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pone-0108915-g002: Maximum likelihood (ML) tree of algal 18S rDNA sequences from egg masses of four amphibian taxa from various North American localities.The data matrix included 1,653 characters and 180 sequences. Newly obtained sequences are bold-faced. ML and MP bootstrap values greater than 50% are shown at corresponding nodes. Subclades I−IV are collapsed into triangles for visual clarity; an un-collapsed version of the tree can be found as Figure S1. Numbers in parentheses indicates the number of sequences obtained and analyzed for the corresponding sample. See Table 1 for naming conventions and GenBank accession numbers.

Mentions: Name codes correspond to branch names in Figure 2.


Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses.

Kim E, Lin Y, Kerney R, Blumenberg L, Bishop C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Maximum likelihood (ML) tree of algal 18S rDNA sequences from egg masses of four amphibian taxa from various North American localities.The data matrix included 1,653 characters and 180 sequences. Newly obtained sequences are bold-faced. ML and MP bootstrap values greater than 50% are shown at corresponding nodes. Subclades I−IV are collapsed into triangles for visual clarity; an un-collapsed version of the tree can be found as Figure S1. Numbers in parentheses indicates the number of sequences obtained and analyzed for the corresponding sample. See Table 1 for naming conventions and GenBank accession numbers.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230919&req=5

pone-0108915-g002: Maximum likelihood (ML) tree of algal 18S rDNA sequences from egg masses of four amphibian taxa from various North American localities.The data matrix included 1,653 characters and 180 sequences. Newly obtained sequences are bold-faced. ML and MP bootstrap values greater than 50% are shown at corresponding nodes. Subclades I−IV are collapsed into triangles for visual clarity; an un-collapsed version of the tree can be found as Figure S1. Numbers in parentheses indicates the number of sequences obtained and analyzed for the corresponding sample. See Table 1 for naming conventions and GenBank accession numbers.
Mentions: Name codes correspond to branch names in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades.Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations.We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Invertebrate Zoology and Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus