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New measurement criteria for studying alcohol drinking and relapse in rodents.

Villarín Pildaín L, Vengeliene V, Matthäus F - In Silico Pharmacol (2013)

Bottom Line: This behaviour is called the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE).Separating animals by their behavior during relapse-like situation could be used as one of the criteria for identification of alcohol addicted and non-addicted rats.A classification into presenting ADE or not is also essential to test the effectiveness of newly developed therapeutic drugs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Relapse to alcohol use is considered as one of the central features distinguishing dependence from controlled alcohol consumption. Relapse-like drinking in rodents is a transient episode of heavy drinking that follows a period of abstinence. This behaviour is called the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE). Not all animals develop behavioural changes that resemble relapse-like drinking behaviour. The purpose of our study was to develop a generalized quantitative criterion by which animals could be separated into two groups depending on their behaviour during a relapse-like situation (ADE vs. no-ADE).

Methods: An automated drinkometer system was used for data collection. This system measures fluid consumption by means of high-precision sensors attached to the drinking bottles in the home cage of the rat. We used a four bottle free choice paradigm with water 5, 10, and 20% ethanol solutions. For data analysis we developed a new measure of alcohol intake that quantifies net alcohol intake in relation to net consumption of water. This new measure is called water-penalized net ethanol intake.

Results: The new measure is more robust than commonly used measurements, such as alcohol preference and intake. It allows the comparison of alcohol intake between different groups of animals and different setups using an arbitrary number of bottles. Based on this new measure we developed a method to automatically select the threshold for the presence of ADE in individual animals.

Conclusions: Separating animals by their behavior during relapse-like situation could be used as one of the criteria for identification of alcohol addicted and non-addicted rats. A classification into presenting ADE or not is also essential to test the effectiveness of newly developed therapeutic drugs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ethanol intake in gper kgbody weight (A) is the standard intake measure. However, it tends to decrease with subsequent baseline/deprivation phases for the same group of animals (B1, B3 and B5). This decrease is affected by the growth of the animals (weight increases), and by a reduction in water consumption. The H2O-penalized net EtOH intake (B) measures the net ethanol consumption per volume of water, and remains constant throughout phases. Each box-plot represents the distribution of the intake during each baseline. The box lower, middle and upper horizontal lines represent lower, median and upper quartiles. Horizontal lower and upper lines outside each box represent minimum and maximum values of the represented data. Outliers are not displayed.
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Fig2: Ethanol intake in gper kgbody weight (A) is the standard intake measure. However, it tends to decrease with subsequent baseline/deprivation phases for the same group of animals (B1, B3 and B5). This decrease is affected by the growth of the animals (weight increases), and by a reduction in water consumption. The H2O-penalized net EtOH intake (B) measures the net ethanol consumption per volume of water, and remains constant throughout phases. Each box-plot represents the distribution of the intake during each baseline. The box lower, middle and upper horizontal lines represent lower, median and upper quartiles. Horizontal lower and upper lines outside each box represent minimum and maximum values of the represented data. Outliers are not displayed.

Mentions: The ethanol preference is proportional to the daily consumed amount of each solution, and for baseline drinking usually decreases with increasing alcohol concentrations (see data from baseline 1, 3, and 5 shown in Figure 1A and B). The preference measure gives a general overview over the drinking behavior, but provides no information on the net alcohol intake. For these measures the drinking profile differs from the ethanol preference profile (Figure 1C and D). While the intake profiles described by ethanol intake in g/kg body weight and water penalized net EtOH intake look very similar, the overall ethanol intake tends to decrease with subsequent baseline phases (Figure 2A), since the animals gain weight and reduce water consumption. The water-penalized net EtOH intake is stable throughout the consecutive baseline phases (Figure 2B).Figure 1


New measurement criteria for studying alcohol drinking and relapse in rodents.

Villarín Pildaín L, Vengeliene V, Matthäus F - In Silico Pharmacol (2013)

Ethanol intake in gper kgbody weight (A) is the standard intake measure. However, it tends to decrease with subsequent baseline/deprivation phases for the same group of animals (B1, B3 and B5). This decrease is affected by the growth of the animals (weight increases), and by a reduction in water consumption. The H2O-penalized net EtOH intake (B) measures the net ethanol consumption per volume of water, and remains constant throughout phases. Each box-plot represents the distribution of the intake during each baseline. The box lower, middle and upper horizontal lines represent lower, median and upper quartiles. Horizontal lower and upper lines outside each box represent minimum and maximum values of the represented data. Outliers are not displayed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230819&req=5

Fig2: Ethanol intake in gper kgbody weight (A) is the standard intake measure. However, it tends to decrease with subsequent baseline/deprivation phases for the same group of animals (B1, B3 and B5). This decrease is affected by the growth of the animals (weight increases), and by a reduction in water consumption. The H2O-penalized net EtOH intake (B) measures the net ethanol consumption per volume of water, and remains constant throughout phases. Each box-plot represents the distribution of the intake during each baseline. The box lower, middle and upper horizontal lines represent lower, median and upper quartiles. Horizontal lower and upper lines outside each box represent minimum and maximum values of the represented data. Outliers are not displayed.
Mentions: The ethanol preference is proportional to the daily consumed amount of each solution, and for baseline drinking usually decreases with increasing alcohol concentrations (see data from baseline 1, 3, and 5 shown in Figure 1A and B). The preference measure gives a general overview over the drinking behavior, but provides no information on the net alcohol intake. For these measures the drinking profile differs from the ethanol preference profile (Figure 1C and D). While the intake profiles described by ethanol intake in g/kg body weight and water penalized net EtOH intake look very similar, the overall ethanol intake tends to decrease with subsequent baseline phases (Figure 2A), since the animals gain weight and reduce water consumption. The water-penalized net EtOH intake is stable throughout the consecutive baseline phases (Figure 2B).Figure 1

Bottom Line: This behaviour is called the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE).Separating animals by their behavior during relapse-like situation could be used as one of the criteria for identification of alcohol addicted and non-addicted rats.A classification into presenting ADE or not is also essential to test the effectiveness of newly developed therapeutic drugs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Relapse to alcohol use is considered as one of the central features distinguishing dependence from controlled alcohol consumption. Relapse-like drinking in rodents is a transient episode of heavy drinking that follows a period of abstinence. This behaviour is called the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE). Not all animals develop behavioural changes that resemble relapse-like drinking behaviour. The purpose of our study was to develop a generalized quantitative criterion by which animals could be separated into two groups depending on their behaviour during a relapse-like situation (ADE vs. no-ADE).

Methods: An automated drinkometer system was used for data collection. This system measures fluid consumption by means of high-precision sensors attached to the drinking bottles in the home cage of the rat. We used a four bottle free choice paradigm with water 5, 10, and 20% ethanol solutions. For data analysis we developed a new measure of alcohol intake that quantifies net alcohol intake in relation to net consumption of water. This new measure is called water-penalized net ethanol intake.

Results: The new measure is more robust than commonly used measurements, such as alcohol preference and intake. It allows the comparison of alcohol intake between different groups of animals and different setups using an arbitrary number of bottles. Based on this new measure we developed a method to automatically select the threshold for the presence of ADE in individual animals.

Conclusions: Separating animals by their behavior during relapse-like situation could be used as one of the criteria for identification of alcohol addicted and non-addicted rats. A classification into presenting ADE or not is also essential to test the effectiveness of newly developed therapeutic drugs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus