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Influence of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA on immunological parameters in cattle.

Macedo AA, Bittar JF, Bassi PB, Ronda JB, Bittar ER, Panetto JC, Araujo MS, Santos RL, Martins-Filho OA - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: However, the effect of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the immune system remains unclear.Multiple regression analysis indicated that endogamy in calves was associated with increased CD8+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes, and decreased γδhigh T cells in peripheral blood.These results demonstrated for the first time that endogamy influences the immune system of cattle.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. rsantos@vet.ufmg.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Endogamy increases the risk of manifestation of deleterious recessive genes. Mitochondrial DNA allows the separation of American Zebu (Bos indicus and Bos taurus) and evaluate the effect of mitochondrial DNA on productive traits of cattle. However, the effect of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the immune system remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between endogamy, mtDNA and immune parameters.

Results: A total of 86 cattle (43 cows and 43 calves) were used in this study. Age, endogamy, milk yield, and origin of mtDNA were measured and their influence on immunological parameters was evaluated. Older cows had increased CD4+ T cells, decreased CD21+ and γδhigh T cells as well as increased CD4+/CD8+ and T/B ratio. Multiple regression analysis indicated that endogamy in calves was associated with increased CD8+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes, and decreased γδhigh T cells in peripheral blood. Cows with medium and lower endogamy had a lower percentage of B lymphocytes and γδlow T cells and cows with lower endogamy had higher levels of γδ T cells and γδhigh T cells, as well as the CD4+/CD48+ cell ratio. Calves with higher endogamy had higher levels of CD8+ T lymphocytes, whereas calves with lower endogamy had lower levels of γδlow T cells.

Conclusions: These results demonstrated for the first time that endogamy influences the immune system of cattle.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage of lymphocytes as assessed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood from Guzerat cows either with Bt-mtDNA (n = 18) sequences or with Bi-mtDNA (n = 25). (A) CD4+ T lymphocytes, (B) CD8+ T lymphocytes, (C) B lymphocytes, (D) γδ+ T lymphocytes, (E) γδhigh T lymphocytes, (F) γδlow T lymphocytes, (G) CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and (H) T/B cell ratio. Data represent mean and standard error. Statistically significant differences are indicated by asterisks (* p<0.05).
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Figure 3: Percentage of lymphocytes as assessed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood from Guzerat cows either with Bt-mtDNA (n = 18) sequences or with Bi-mtDNA (n = 25). (A) CD4+ T lymphocytes, (B) CD8+ T lymphocytes, (C) B lymphocytes, (D) γδ+ T lymphocytes, (E) γδhigh T lymphocytes, (F) γδlow T lymphocytes, (G) CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and (H) T/B cell ratio. Data represent mean and standard error. Statistically significant differences are indicated by asterisks (* p<0.05).

Mentions: All cattle used in this study were mtDNA genotyped. This analysis allowed us to assess whether individual Zebu cattle (Bos taurus indicus) remained with no introduction of maternal DNA of B. taurus taurus origin, thus tending to have higher levels of endogamy [12]. Our results demonstrated that 42% (18/43) of the cows had mtDNA from B. taurus taurus, and 58% (25/43) had only B. taurus indicus (Zebu) mtDNA. The same result was observed in calves, which was expected since these calves were the offspring of those same cows mentioned above. After grouping cows and calves according to the presence or absence of B. taurus taurus (European) mtDNA, which were classified into “Bt-mtDNA” or “Bi-mtDNA”, respectively, the profile of leukocytes in peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry. In cows, the percentages of B lymphocytes, γδT cells, and γδhigh T cells were decreased in individuals with Bi-mtDNA when compared to individuals with Bt-mtDNA (p < 0.05; Figure 3C, D, and E, respectively). In calves, individuals with Bi-mtDNA had a decreased percentage of γδT cells and γδhigh T cells when compared to individuals with Bt-mtDNA (p < 0.05; Figure 4D and E, respectively). As expected, the endogamy coefficient was lower in calves with Bt-mtDNAwhen compared to calves with Bi-mtDNA (p < 0.05; Figure 5).


Influence of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA on immunological parameters in cattle.

Macedo AA, Bittar JF, Bassi PB, Ronda JB, Bittar ER, Panetto JC, Araujo MS, Santos RL, Martins-Filho OA - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Percentage of lymphocytes as assessed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood from Guzerat cows either with Bt-mtDNA (n = 18) sequences or with Bi-mtDNA (n = 25). (A) CD4+ T lymphocytes, (B) CD8+ T lymphocytes, (C) B lymphocytes, (D) γδ+ T lymphocytes, (E) γδhigh T lymphocytes, (F) γδlow T lymphocytes, (G) CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and (H) T/B cell ratio. Data represent mean and standard error. Statistically significant differences are indicated by asterisks (* p<0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230805&req=5

Figure 3: Percentage of lymphocytes as assessed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood from Guzerat cows either with Bt-mtDNA (n = 18) sequences or with Bi-mtDNA (n = 25). (A) CD4+ T lymphocytes, (B) CD8+ T lymphocytes, (C) B lymphocytes, (D) γδ+ T lymphocytes, (E) γδhigh T lymphocytes, (F) γδlow T lymphocytes, (G) CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and (H) T/B cell ratio. Data represent mean and standard error. Statistically significant differences are indicated by asterisks (* p<0.05).
Mentions: All cattle used in this study were mtDNA genotyped. This analysis allowed us to assess whether individual Zebu cattle (Bos taurus indicus) remained with no introduction of maternal DNA of B. taurus taurus origin, thus tending to have higher levels of endogamy [12]. Our results demonstrated that 42% (18/43) of the cows had mtDNA from B. taurus taurus, and 58% (25/43) had only B. taurus indicus (Zebu) mtDNA. The same result was observed in calves, which was expected since these calves were the offspring of those same cows mentioned above. After grouping cows and calves according to the presence or absence of B. taurus taurus (European) mtDNA, which were classified into “Bt-mtDNA” or “Bi-mtDNA”, respectively, the profile of leukocytes in peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry. In cows, the percentages of B lymphocytes, γδT cells, and γδhigh T cells were decreased in individuals with Bi-mtDNA when compared to individuals with Bt-mtDNA (p < 0.05; Figure 3C, D, and E, respectively). In calves, individuals with Bi-mtDNA had a decreased percentage of γδT cells and γδhigh T cells when compared to individuals with Bt-mtDNA (p < 0.05; Figure 4D and E, respectively). As expected, the endogamy coefficient was lower in calves with Bt-mtDNAwhen compared to calves with Bi-mtDNA (p < 0.05; Figure 5).

Bottom Line: However, the effect of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the immune system remains unclear.Multiple regression analysis indicated that endogamy in calves was associated with increased CD8+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes, and decreased γδhigh T cells in peripheral blood.These results demonstrated for the first time that endogamy influences the immune system of cattle.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. rsantos@vet.ufmg.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Endogamy increases the risk of manifestation of deleterious recessive genes. Mitochondrial DNA allows the separation of American Zebu (Bos indicus and Bos taurus) and evaluate the effect of mitochondrial DNA on productive traits of cattle. However, the effect of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the immune system remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between endogamy, mtDNA and immune parameters.

Results: A total of 86 cattle (43 cows and 43 calves) were used in this study. Age, endogamy, milk yield, and origin of mtDNA were measured and their influence on immunological parameters was evaluated. Older cows had increased CD4+ T cells, decreased CD21+ and γδhigh T cells as well as increased CD4+/CD8+ and T/B ratio. Multiple regression analysis indicated that endogamy in calves was associated with increased CD8+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes, and decreased γδhigh T cells in peripheral blood. Cows with medium and lower endogamy had a lower percentage of B lymphocytes and γδlow T cells and cows with lower endogamy had higher levels of γδ T cells and γδhigh T cells, as well as the CD4+/CD48+ cell ratio. Calves with higher endogamy had higher levels of CD8+ T lymphocytes, whereas calves with lower endogamy had lower levels of γδlow T cells.

Conclusions: These results demonstrated for the first time that endogamy influences the immune system of cattle.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus