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Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lappi J, Mykkänen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamäki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M - Nutr J (2014)

Bottom Line: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism.Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed.The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. marjukka.kolehmainen@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Methods: Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA.

Results: Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.

Conclusions: Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

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Fasting and postprandial A) propionate and B) butyrate concentrations in response to the meal test following the four-week periods with consumption of the different test breads (mean ± SEM, n = 21). ▀, after WW period; ▲, after BRB + WW period; ●, after WGR period. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 between the WGR and WW periods, #p < 0.05 between the BRB + WW and WW periods (General linear model for repeated measures adjusted for multiple comparisons). BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; WGR, wholegrain rye bread; WW, white wheat bread.
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Fig4: Fasting and postprandial A) propionate and B) butyrate concentrations in response to the meal test following the four-week periods with consumption of the different test breads (mean ± SEM, n = 21). ▀, after WW period; ▲, after BRB + WW period; ●, after WGR period. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 between the WGR and WW periods, #p < 0.05 between the BRB + WW and WW periods (General linear model for repeated measures adjusted for multiple comparisons). BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; WGR, wholegrain rye bread; WW, white wheat bread.

Mentions: Fasting concentration of total SCFAs (sum of acetate, propionate, and butyrate mean ± SD of all periods: 89 ± 26 μmol/L) and of individual SCFAs did not differ among the periods. Acetate concentration accounted for 94% of the total concentration of SCFAs. From fasting to 30 min postprandially, the total SCFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. However, when comparisons were made among all the three periods, propionate concentration tended to differ (p = 0.058, GLM for time x period interaction) and butyrate concentration differed significantly (p = 0.011, GLM for time x period interaction) from fasting to 30 min postprandially (Figure 4A,B). At 30 min, propionate concentration was higher after the WGR period than after the WW period at 30 min (p < 0.01, Wilcoxon test), and butyrate concentration was higher after the WGR (p < 0.01, Wilcoxon test) and BRB + WW periods (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon test) than after the WW period.Figure 4


Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lappi J, Mykkänen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamäki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M - Nutr J (2014)

Fasting and postprandial A) propionate and B) butyrate concentrations in response to the meal test following the four-week periods with consumption of the different test breads (mean ± SEM, n = 21). ▀, after WW period; ▲, after BRB + WW period; ●, after WGR period. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 between the WGR and WW periods, #p < 0.05 between the BRB + WW and WW periods (General linear model for repeated measures adjusted for multiple comparisons). BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; WGR, wholegrain rye bread; WW, white wheat bread.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230797&req=5

Fig4: Fasting and postprandial A) propionate and B) butyrate concentrations in response to the meal test following the four-week periods with consumption of the different test breads (mean ± SEM, n = 21). ▀, after WW period; ▲, after BRB + WW period; ●, after WGR period. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 between the WGR and WW periods, #p < 0.05 between the BRB + WW and WW periods (General linear model for repeated measures adjusted for multiple comparisons). BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; WGR, wholegrain rye bread; WW, white wheat bread.
Mentions: Fasting concentration of total SCFAs (sum of acetate, propionate, and butyrate mean ± SD of all periods: 89 ± 26 μmol/L) and of individual SCFAs did not differ among the periods. Acetate concentration accounted for 94% of the total concentration of SCFAs. From fasting to 30 min postprandially, the total SCFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. However, when comparisons were made among all the three periods, propionate concentration tended to differ (p = 0.058, GLM for time x period interaction) and butyrate concentration differed significantly (p = 0.011, GLM for time x period interaction) from fasting to 30 min postprandially (Figure 4A,B). At 30 min, propionate concentration was higher after the WGR period than after the WW period at 30 min (p < 0.01, Wilcoxon test), and butyrate concentration was higher after the WGR (p < 0.01, Wilcoxon test) and BRB + WW periods (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon test) than after the WW period.Figure 4

Bottom Line: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism.Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed.The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. marjukka.kolehmainen@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Methods: Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA.

Results: Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.

Conclusions: Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

Show MeSH