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Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lappi J, Mykkänen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamäki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M - Nutr J (2014)

Bottom Line: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism.Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed.The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. marjukka.kolehmainen@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Methods: Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA.

Results: Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.

Conclusions: Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

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Fasting and postprandial A) glucose and B) insulin responses to the meal test following the four-week periods with consumption of the different test breads (mean ± SEM, n = 21). *p < 0.05 between the WGR and WW periods (Wilcoxon signed rank test). ▲, BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; ●, WGR, wholegrain rye bread; ▀, WW, white wheat bread.
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Fig3: Fasting and postprandial A) glucose and B) insulin responses to the meal test following the four-week periods with consumption of the different test breads (mean ± SEM, n = 21). *p < 0.05 between the WGR and WW periods (Wilcoxon signed rank test). ▲, BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; ●, WGR, wholegrain rye bread; ▀, WW, white wheat bread.

Mentions: Fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin responses to the meal test did not differ between the WGR and BRB + WW periods (Figure 3). No difference was found in glucose and insulin AUCs and the first-phase insulin secretion (data not shown), and in the disposition index (DI) (3519 ± 4947 and 3614 ± 2883 for BRB + WW and WGR periods, respectively) between the periods. However, response of plasma insulin to the meal test was lower after the WGR period than after the WW period at 120 min (p = 0.023, Wilcoxon test) (Figure 3B). On the other hand, first-phase insulin secretion during the meal test tended to be higher after the rye bread periods (p = 0.083, GLM). Also, DI differed among the bread periods (p = 0.042, GLM), being higher after the WGR period as compared to the WW period (3614 ± 2883 vs. 2500 ± 1336, p = 0.033, Wilcoxon).Figure 3


Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lappi J, Mykkänen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamäki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M - Nutr J (2014)

Fasting and postprandial A) glucose and B) insulin responses to the meal test following the four-week periods with consumption of the different test breads (mean ± SEM, n = 21). *p < 0.05 between the WGR and WW periods (Wilcoxon signed rank test). ▲, BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; ●, WGR, wholegrain rye bread; ▀, WW, white wheat bread.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230797&req=5

Fig3: Fasting and postprandial A) glucose and B) insulin responses to the meal test following the four-week periods with consumption of the different test breads (mean ± SEM, n = 21). *p < 0.05 between the WGR and WW periods (Wilcoxon signed rank test). ▲, BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; ●, WGR, wholegrain rye bread; ▀, WW, white wheat bread.
Mentions: Fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin responses to the meal test did not differ between the WGR and BRB + WW periods (Figure 3). No difference was found in glucose and insulin AUCs and the first-phase insulin secretion (data not shown), and in the disposition index (DI) (3519 ± 4947 and 3614 ± 2883 for BRB + WW and WGR periods, respectively) between the periods. However, response of plasma insulin to the meal test was lower after the WGR period than after the WW period at 120 min (p = 0.023, Wilcoxon test) (Figure 3B). On the other hand, first-phase insulin secretion during the meal test tended to be higher after the rye bread periods (p = 0.083, GLM). Also, DI differed among the bread periods (p = 0.042, GLM), being higher after the WGR period as compared to the WW period (3614 ± 2883 vs. 2500 ± 1336, p = 0.033, Wilcoxon).Figure 3

Bottom Line: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism.Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed.The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. marjukka.kolehmainen@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Methods: Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA.

Results: Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.

Conclusions: Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

Show MeSH