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Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lappi J, Mykkänen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamäki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M - Nutr J (2014)

Bottom Line: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism.Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed.The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. marjukka.kolehmainen@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Methods: Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA.

Results: Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.

Conclusions: Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

Show MeSH
Study design. Test meal included a standardized portion of white wheat bread, margarine, cheese, cucumber, and juice. BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; WGR, wholegrain rye bread; WW, white wheat bread.
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Fig2: Study design. Test meal included a standardized portion of white wheat bread, margarine, cheese, cucumber, and juice. BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; WGR, wholegrain rye bread; WW, white wheat bread.

Mentions: A four-week run-in period with low grain fibre intake preceded two consecutive four-week test periods with high grain fibre intake in randomized, cross-over manner (Figure 2). During the run-in period the subjects were advised to consume 6-10 slices (20-25 g/slice) of the WW daily. During the test periods, the subjects were asked to consume 6-10 slices (25-30 g/slice) of the WGR and BRB + WW daily, in randomized order. The order of consuming the rye-containing products was randomized using the simple randomization method [25]. The specific amount of bread slices depended on individual energy requirement of the subjects. The test breads were provided for the subjects free of charge. The dietician advised the subjects weekly or biweekly in the practical management of the diet. Furthermore, the subjects were advised to maintain their body weight and follow their habitual living habits throughout the study.Figure 2


Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lappi J, Mykkänen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamäki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M - Nutr J (2014)

Study design. Test meal included a standardized portion of white wheat bread, margarine, cheese, cucumber, and juice. BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; WGR, wholegrain rye bread; WW, white wheat bread.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230797&req=5

Fig2: Study design. Test meal included a standardized portion of white wheat bread, margarine, cheese, cucumber, and juice. BRB + WW, white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran; WGR, wholegrain rye bread; WW, white wheat bread.
Mentions: A four-week run-in period with low grain fibre intake preceded two consecutive four-week test periods with high grain fibre intake in randomized, cross-over manner (Figure 2). During the run-in period the subjects were advised to consume 6-10 slices (20-25 g/slice) of the WW daily. During the test periods, the subjects were asked to consume 6-10 slices (25-30 g/slice) of the WGR and BRB + WW daily, in randomized order. The order of consuming the rye-containing products was randomized using the simple randomization method [25]. The specific amount of bread slices depended on individual energy requirement of the subjects. The test breads were provided for the subjects free of charge. The dietician advised the subjects weekly or biweekly in the practical management of the diet. Furthermore, the subjects were advised to maintain their body weight and follow their habitual living habits throughout the study.Figure 2

Bottom Line: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism.Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed.The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. marjukka.kolehmainen@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Methods: Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA.

Results: Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.

Conclusions: Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

Show MeSH