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Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lappi J, Mykkänen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamäki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M - Nutr J (2014)

Bottom Line: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism.Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed.The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. marjukka.kolehmainen@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Methods: Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA.

Results: Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.

Conclusions: Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

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Fig1: Flow diagram.

Mentions: Healthy men and women were recruited based on one or several of the following self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of grain products, especially rye bread: flatulence, bloating, discomfort, constipation, and diarrhea. The recruitment of subjects is described in Figure 1. Exclusion criteria included BMI >35 kg/m2, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease or the presence of transglutaminase IgA antibodies (>7 U/ml), type 1 or 2 diabetes, abnormal liver, thyroid, or renal function (hyper- or hypothyroidism and hypertension controlled with medication were allowed), fasting serum triglycerides concentration >3.5 mmol/l, fasting serum total cholesterol concentration >8 mmol/l, alcohol abuse (>16 portions/week (women)/>24 portions/week (men)), cereal or milk protein allergy, special diet (such as vegetarian or low-carbohydrate diet), and antibiotic use over the preceding two months. The age, BMI, and fasting glucose of the subjects ranged from 38 to 65 years, from 19 to 30 kg/m2, and from 4.9 to 6.3 mmol/l, respectively. When assessed for eligibility, subjects were informed that participation in the intervention requires daily consumption of bread over three months. Five subjects mentioned that they had reduced consumption of grain products due to gastrointestinal symptoms. Other subjects did not report changes in their habitual consumption of grain products despite the symptoms. The subjects provided written informed consent prior participating in the study. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital District of Northern Savo.Figure 1


Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lappi J, Mykkänen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamäki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M - Nutr J (2014)

Flow diagram.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230797&req=5

Fig1: Flow diagram.
Mentions: Healthy men and women were recruited based on one or several of the following self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of grain products, especially rye bread: flatulence, bloating, discomfort, constipation, and diarrhea. The recruitment of subjects is described in Figure 1. Exclusion criteria included BMI >35 kg/m2, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease or the presence of transglutaminase IgA antibodies (>7 U/ml), type 1 or 2 diabetes, abnormal liver, thyroid, or renal function (hyper- or hypothyroidism and hypertension controlled with medication were allowed), fasting serum triglycerides concentration >3.5 mmol/l, fasting serum total cholesterol concentration >8 mmol/l, alcohol abuse (>16 portions/week (women)/>24 portions/week (men)), cereal or milk protein allergy, special diet (such as vegetarian or low-carbohydrate diet), and antibiotic use over the preceding two months. The age, BMI, and fasting glucose of the subjects ranged from 38 to 65 years, from 19 to 30 kg/m2, and from 4.9 to 6.3 mmol/l, respectively. When assessed for eligibility, subjects were informed that participation in the intervention requires daily consumption of bread over three months. Five subjects mentioned that they had reduced consumption of grain products due to gastrointestinal symptoms. Other subjects did not report changes in their habitual consumption of grain products despite the symptoms. The subjects provided written informed consent prior participating in the study. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital District of Northern Savo.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism.Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed.The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. marjukka.kolehmainen@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Methods: Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA.

Results: Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.

Conclusions: Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

Show MeSH