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The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience.

Urquhart JA, O'Connor AR - PeerJ (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (∼25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (∼10%).There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength.We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu.

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Affiliation: School of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of St Andrews , UK.

ABSTRACT
Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (∼25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (∼10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu.

No MeSH data available.


Likelihood of déjà vu responding according to list and word condition.(A) Shows the likelihood of a déjà vu response according to list and word type collapsed across recognition response correctness. Upper-case N indicates high novelty lists (blue hues), lower-case n indicates low novelty lists (orange hues). Upper-case F indicates high familiarity lists, lower-case f indicates low familiarity lists. (B) Shows the likelihood of a déjà vu response according to novelty manipulation (N is high novelty lists (blue), n is low novelty lists (orange)) and word type (cl, critical lure; rl, related lure; ul, unrelated lure; t, target), split according to correct (left panel) and incorrect (right panel) recognition responding. Error bars represent 95% CIs.
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fig-2: Likelihood of déjà vu responding according to list and word condition.(A) Shows the likelihood of a déjà vu response according to list and word type collapsed across recognition response correctness. Upper-case N indicates high novelty lists (blue hues), lower-case n indicates low novelty lists (orange hues). Upper-case F indicates high familiarity lists, lower-case f indicates low familiarity lists. (B) Shows the likelihood of a déjà vu response according to novelty manipulation (N is high novelty lists (blue), n is low novelty lists (orange)) and word type (cl, critical lure; rl, related lure; ul, unrelated lure; t, target), split according to correct (left panel) and incorrect (right panel) recognition responding. Error bars represent 95% CIs.

Mentions: Déjà vu occurrence was assessed on a trial by trial basis. We were therefore able to calculate the likelihood with which a word from each condition would yield a déjà vu report (see Table 1 and Fig. 2A). Déjà vu frequency, as a proportion of all words presented within the given combinations of conditions, was assessed in a 2 (novelty) x 2 (familiarity) x 4 (word) repeated measures ANOVA. Assumptions of sphericity were violated for the main effect of word, χ2(5) = 31.17, p < .001, and the interactions between word x novelty, χ2(5) = 92.60, p < .001, word x familiarity, χ2(5) = 54.54, p < .001, and word x novelty x familiarity, χ2(5) = 33.49, p < .001. Degrees of freedom for these effects were corrected using Greenhouse-Geisser estimates of sphericity, using ε = .564, ε = .413, ε = .482 and ε = .555 respectively. Across all effects involving familiarity however, there were no significant differences, all ps > .350, suggesting that our manipulation of DRM strength did not influence déjà vu responses independently of the other factors. We therefore present the remaining effects involving the novelty and word conditions below.


The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience.

Urquhart JA, O'Connor AR - PeerJ (2014)

Likelihood of déjà vu responding according to list and word condition.(A) Shows the likelihood of a déjà vu response according to list and word type collapsed across recognition response correctness. Upper-case N indicates high novelty lists (blue hues), lower-case n indicates low novelty lists (orange hues). Upper-case F indicates high familiarity lists, lower-case f indicates low familiarity lists. (B) Shows the likelihood of a déjà vu response according to novelty manipulation (N is high novelty lists (blue), n is low novelty lists (orange)) and word type (cl, critical lure; rl, related lure; ul, unrelated lure; t, target), split according to correct (left panel) and incorrect (right panel) recognition responding. Error bars represent 95% CIs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230551&req=5

fig-2: Likelihood of déjà vu responding according to list and word condition.(A) Shows the likelihood of a déjà vu response according to list and word type collapsed across recognition response correctness. Upper-case N indicates high novelty lists (blue hues), lower-case n indicates low novelty lists (orange hues). Upper-case F indicates high familiarity lists, lower-case f indicates low familiarity lists. (B) Shows the likelihood of a déjà vu response according to novelty manipulation (N is high novelty lists (blue), n is low novelty lists (orange)) and word type (cl, critical lure; rl, related lure; ul, unrelated lure; t, target), split according to correct (left panel) and incorrect (right panel) recognition responding. Error bars represent 95% CIs.
Mentions: Déjà vu occurrence was assessed on a trial by trial basis. We were therefore able to calculate the likelihood with which a word from each condition would yield a déjà vu report (see Table 1 and Fig. 2A). Déjà vu frequency, as a proportion of all words presented within the given combinations of conditions, was assessed in a 2 (novelty) x 2 (familiarity) x 4 (word) repeated measures ANOVA. Assumptions of sphericity were violated for the main effect of word, χ2(5) = 31.17, p < .001, and the interactions between word x novelty, χ2(5) = 92.60, p < .001, word x familiarity, χ2(5) = 54.54, p < .001, and word x novelty x familiarity, χ2(5) = 33.49, p < .001. Degrees of freedom for these effects were corrected using Greenhouse-Geisser estimates of sphericity, using ε = .564, ε = .413, ε = .482 and ε = .555 respectively. Across all effects involving familiarity however, there were no significant differences, all ps > .350, suggesting that our manipulation of DRM strength did not influence déjà vu responses independently of the other factors. We therefore present the remaining effects involving the novelty and word conditions below.

Bottom Line: We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (∼25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (∼10%).There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength.We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of St Andrews , UK.

ABSTRACT
Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (∼25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (∼10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu.

No MeSH data available.