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Pluripotency and its layers of complexity.

Ooi J, Liu P - Cell Regen (Lond) (2012)

Bottom Line: Anomalous cell populations displaying signs of pluripotency have also been uncovered, from the isolation of embryonic carcinoma cells to the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells.Gaining insight into the molecular circuitry within these cell types enlightens us about the significance and contribution of each stage, hence deepening our understanding of vertebrate development.In conclusion, we illustrate pluripotent cells derived from other organisms, including human derivatives, and describe current paradigms in the comprehension of human pluripotency.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, CB10 1SA UK ; Technology and Research, Agency for Science, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #20-10, Connexis North Tower, Kragujevac, 138632 Singapore.

ABSTRACT
Pluripotency is depicted by a self-renewing state that can competently differentiate to form the three germ layers. Different stages of early murine development can be captured on a petri dish, delineating a spectrum of pluripotent states, ranging from embryonic stem cells, embryonic germ cells to epiblast stem cells. Anomalous cell populations displaying signs of pluripotency have also been uncovered, from the isolation of embryonic carcinoma cells to the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Gaining insight into the molecular circuitry within these cell types enlightens us about the significance and contribution of each stage, hence deepening our understanding of vertebrate development. In this review, we aim to describe experimental milestones that led to the understanding of embryonic development and the conception of pluripotency. We also discuss attempts at exploring the realm of pluripotency with the identification of pluripotent stem cells within mouse teratocarcinomas and embryos, and the generation of pluripotent cells through nuclear reprogramming. In conclusion, we illustrate pluripotent cells derived from other organisms, including human derivatives, and describe current paradigms in the comprehension of human pluripotency.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Different Pluripotent States in Mouse and Human. (TOP) Distinct pluripotent states derived in vitro from developing mouse embryos or through nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Further manipulation through the introduction of genetic factors or modification of growth conditions leads to the attainment of additional pluripotent states, contributing to the complexities of pluripotency. (BOTTOM) Pluripotent states captured in vitro from human blastocysts or nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Modelled after pluripotent states during murine development, recent findings suggest the presence of a naïve pluripotent state during human development.
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Fig1: Different Pluripotent States in Mouse and Human. (TOP) Distinct pluripotent states derived in vitro from developing mouse embryos or through nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Further manipulation through the introduction of genetic factors or modification of growth conditions leads to the attainment of additional pluripotent states, contributing to the complexities of pluripotency. (BOTTOM) Pluripotent states captured in vitro from human blastocysts or nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Modelled after pluripotent states during murine development, recent findings suggest the presence of a naïve pluripotent state during human development.

Mentions: The study of pluripotency has amassed a wealth of information (Figure 1), from the discovery of nuclear reprogramming in the 1952, to the isolation of mouse ES cells and EpiSCs in 1981 and 2007 respectively. As the first vertebrate model organism used to study pluripotency, our understanding of the various stages during mouse embryonic development has thrived. Translating this knowledge to the developmental processes in other organisms may shed light on species-specific embryological properties, or offer refinements to the strategies employed for the study of development.Figure 1


Pluripotency and its layers of complexity.

Ooi J, Liu P - Cell Regen (Lond) (2012)

Different Pluripotent States in Mouse and Human. (TOP) Distinct pluripotent states derived in vitro from developing mouse embryos or through nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Further manipulation through the introduction of genetic factors or modification of growth conditions leads to the attainment of additional pluripotent states, contributing to the complexities of pluripotency. (BOTTOM) Pluripotent states captured in vitro from human blastocysts or nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Modelled after pluripotent states during murine development, recent findings suggest the presence of a naïve pluripotent state during human development.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230502&req=5

Fig1: Different Pluripotent States in Mouse and Human. (TOP) Distinct pluripotent states derived in vitro from developing mouse embryos or through nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Further manipulation through the introduction of genetic factors or modification of growth conditions leads to the attainment of additional pluripotent states, contributing to the complexities of pluripotency. (BOTTOM) Pluripotent states captured in vitro from human blastocysts or nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Modelled after pluripotent states during murine development, recent findings suggest the presence of a naïve pluripotent state during human development.
Mentions: The study of pluripotency has amassed a wealth of information (Figure 1), from the discovery of nuclear reprogramming in the 1952, to the isolation of mouse ES cells and EpiSCs in 1981 and 2007 respectively. As the first vertebrate model organism used to study pluripotency, our understanding of the various stages during mouse embryonic development has thrived. Translating this knowledge to the developmental processes in other organisms may shed light on species-specific embryological properties, or offer refinements to the strategies employed for the study of development.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Anomalous cell populations displaying signs of pluripotency have also been uncovered, from the isolation of embryonic carcinoma cells to the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells.Gaining insight into the molecular circuitry within these cell types enlightens us about the significance and contribution of each stage, hence deepening our understanding of vertebrate development.In conclusion, we illustrate pluripotent cells derived from other organisms, including human derivatives, and describe current paradigms in the comprehension of human pluripotency.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, CB10 1SA UK ; Technology and Research, Agency for Science, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #20-10, Connexis North Tower, Kragujevac, 138632 Singapore.

ABSTRACT
Pluripotency is depicted by a self-renewing state that can competently differentiate to form the three germ layers. Different stages of early murine development can be captured on a petri dish, delineating a spectrum of pluripotent states, ranging from embryonic stem cells, embryonic germ cells to epiblast stem cells. Anomalous cell populations displaying signs of pluripotency have also been uncovered, from the isolation of embryonic carcinoma cells to the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Gaining insight into the molecular circuitry within these cell types enlightens us about the significance and contribution of each stage, hence deepening our understanding of vertebrate development. In this review, we aim to describe experimental milestones that led to the understanding of embryonic development and the conception of pluripotency. We also discuss attempts at exploring the realm of pluripotency with the identification of pluripotent stem cells within mouse teratocarcinomas and embryos, and the generation of pluripotent cells through nuclear reprogramming. In conclusion, we illustrate pluripotent cells derived from other organisms, including human derivatives, and describe current paradigms in the comprehension of human pluripotency.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus