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Generation of functional organs from stem cells.

Liu Y, Yang R, He Z, Gao WQ - Cell Regen (Lond) (2013)

Bottom Line: It is generally believed that transplantation of specific stem cells into the injured tissue to replace the lost cells is an effective way to repair the tissue.In fact, organ transplantation has been successfully practiced in clinics for liver or kidney failure.Toward that direction, generation of transplantable organs using stem cells is a desirable approach for organ replacement and would be of great interest for both basic and clinical scientists.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Stem Cell Research Center, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China ; Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200127 China.

ABSTRACT
We are now well entering the exciting era of stem cells. Potential stem cell therapy holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral-sclerosis, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, and etc. It is generally believed that transplantation of specific stem cells into the injured tissue to replace the lost cells is an effective way to repair the tissue. In fact, organ transplantation has been successfully practiced in clinics for liver or kidney failure. However, the severe shortage of donor organs has been a major obstacle for the expansion of organ transplantation programs. Toward that direction, generation of transplantable organs using stem cells is a desirable approach for organ replacement and would be of great interest for both basic and clinical scientists. Here we review recent progress in the field of organ generation using various methods including single adult tissue stem cells, a blastocyst complementation system, tissue decellularization/recellularization and a combination of stem cells and tissue engineering.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Four approaches of generating functional organ. A, From a single adult tissue stem cell to a functional organ. B, Generation of organs using blastocyst complementation system. C, Decellularization of matrix bioscaffolds and recellularization to produce a new organ. D, Combination of tissue-engineering and seeded stem cells to generate new organs.
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Fig1: Four approaches of generating functional organ. A, From a single adult tissue stem cell to a functional organ. B, Generation of organs using blastocyst complementation system. C, Decellularization of matrix bioscaffolds and recellularization to produce a new organ. D, Combination of tissue-engineering and seeded stem cells to generate new organs.

Mentions: In summary, as described above, there are four major ways of generation of functional organs using stem cells (Figure 1). Each of them has its own uniqueness. Specifically, using adult stem cells such as adult tissue epithelial stem cells, there will be a very low risk of tumorigenesis, more selective differentiation capability and better integration into the related tissue mass and acquisition of relevant organ functions. However, the number of the adult tissue stem cells that can be isolated is a limiting factor. Although using blastocyst complementation system is an attractive approach, particularly using a human-porcine inter-species strategy, injection of human stem cells into an organ-deficient porcine embryo is currently forbidden for ethical reasons. In fact, blastocyst complementation across species of large livestock animals such as porcine and canine has not been experimentally proven, more studies are needed in this direction. While the decellularization and recellularization research on various types of organs including the heart, liver, lung, kidney, bladder, etc. has yielded exciting results, but it is not practical to get the donor organs for such approach from the human beings. In addition, the acquisition of the organ functions from these studies is still limited. Tissue engineering using various biomaterial scaffolds holds hopes for particular medical needs such as plastic and reconstructive surgery, however the scaffolds using particular biomaterials are still primitive and require further development and research. Finally, the stem cell types that can be considered to be used for generation of functional organs may include ESC, iPSC and adult tissue cells. Each of these cell types has different advantages and disadvantages, in terms of proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenicity risk, which have been well-discussed in the literature.Figure 1


Generation of functional organs from stem cells.

Liu Y, Yang R, He Z, Gao WQ - Cell Regen (Lond) (2013)

Four approaches of generating functional organ. A, From a single adult tissue stem cell to a functional organ. B, Generation of organs using blastocyst complementation system. C, Decellularization of matrix bioscaffolds and recellularization to produce a new organ. D, Combination of tissue-engineering and seeded stem cells to generate new organs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230490&req=5

Fig1: Four approaches of generating functional organ. A, From a single adult tissue stem cell to a functional organ. B, Generation of organs using blastocyst complementation system. C, Decellularization of matrix bioscaffolds and recellularization to produce a new organ. D, Combination of tissue-engineering and seeded stem cells to generate new organs.
Mentions: In summary, as described above, there are four major ways of generation of functional organs using stem cells (Figure 1). Each of them has its own uniqueness. Specifically, using adult stem cells such as adult tissue epithelial stem cells, there will be a very low risk of tumorigenesis, more selective differentiation capability and better integration into the related tissue mass and acquisition of relevant organ functions. However, the number of the adult tissue stem cells that can be isolated is a limiting factor. Although using blastocyst complementation system is an attractive approach, particularly using a human-porcine inter-species strategy, injection of human stem cells into an organ-deficient porcine embryo is currently forbidden for ethical reasons. In fact, blastocyst complementation across species of large livestock animals such as porcine and canine has not been experimentally proven, more studies are needed in this direction. While the decellularization and recellularization research on various types of organs including the heart, liver, lung, kidney, bladder, etc. has yielded exciting results, but it is not practical to get the donor organs for such approach from the human beings. In addition, the acquisition of the organ functions from these studies is still limited. Tissue engineering using various biomaterial scaffolds holds hopes for particular medical needs such as plastic and reconstructive surgery, however the scaffolds using particular biomaterials are still primitive and require further development and research. Finally, the stem cell types that can be considered to be used for generation of functional organs may include ESC, iPSC and adult tissue cells. Each of these cell types has different advantages and disadvantages, in terms of proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenicity risk, which have been well-discussed in the literature.Figure 1

Bottom Line: It is generally believed that transplantation of specific stem cells into the injured tissue to replace the lost cells is an effective way to repair the tissue.In fact, organ transplantation has been successfully practiced in clinics for liver or kidney failure.Toward that direction, generation of transplantable organs using stem cells is a desirable approach for organ replacement and would be of great interest for both basic and clinical scientists.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Stem Cell Research Center, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China ; Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200127 China.

ABSTRACT
We are now well entering the exciting era of stem cells. Potential stem cell therapy holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral-sclerosis, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, and etc. It is generally believed that transplantation of specific stem cells into the injured tissue to replace the lost cells is an effective way to repair the tissue. In fact, organ transplantation has been successfully practiced in clinics for liver or kidney failure. However, the severe shortage of donor organs has been a major obstacle for the expansion of organ transplantation programs. Toward that direction, generation of transplantable organs using stem cells is a desirable approach for organ replacement and would be of great interest for both basic and clinical scientists. Here we review recent progress in the field of organ generation using various methods including single adult tissue stem cells, a blastocyst complementation system, tissue decellularization/recellularization and a combination of stem cells and tissue engineering.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus