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Distress and disability in young adults presenting to clinical services with mood disorders.

Scott EM, Hermens DF, Naismith SL, Guastella AJ, White D, Whitwell BG, Lagopoulos J, Scott J, Hickie IB - Int J Bipolar Disord (2013)

Bottom Line: The MNLR analysis demonstrated that younger age was associated with lower impairment groups (irrespective of distress level), whilst male gender was associated with lower distress (irrespective of impairment).Compared to the low impairment/distress cases, the high impairment/distress group was significantly more likely to use cannabis and/or alcohol.Age, substance use and possibly gender are probably better predictors of distress/impairment sub-group than mood disorder sub-type in youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Research Unit, Brain & Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney, 100 Mallett Street, Camperdown, New South Wales 2050 Australia ; School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame, 160 Oxford Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Distress and/or dysfunction are well established as key reasons for help-seeking. We explore the characteristics of groups defined by high or low distress or disability in young people with unipolar depression (UP) or bipolar disorder (BD).

Methods: Individuals aged 12 to 25 years presenting to youth mental health services for the first time with a primary diagnosis of UP or BD were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler-10) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Four groups with high or low distress or impairment were defined (according to scores above or below the group medians for the Kessler-10 and WSAS). Multinomial logistic regression (MNLR) was used to examine how cases with high levels of distress and disability (reference group) differed from the other three groups.

Results and discussion: The sample comprised 1,746 cases (90% UP, 56% female) with a median age of 17.5 years. Median scores on the Kessler-10 and WSAS were both high (30 and 20, respectively) and were significantly inter-correlated (r = 0.62); the high impairment/distress group was the largest sub-group (39% of cases). The MNLR analysis demonstrated that younger age was associated with lower impairment groups (irrespective of distress level), whilst male gender was associated with lower distress (irrespective of impairment). Compared to the low impairment/distress cases, the high impairment/distress group was significantly more likely to use cannabis and/or alcohol. Age, substance use and possibly gender are probably better predictors of distress/impairment sub-group than mood disorder sub-type in youth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Frequency of cannabis use in the last 3 months. In groups defined according to high and low scores on the WSAS and K-10 scores.
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Fig2: Frequency of cannabis use in the last 3 months. In groups defined according to high and low scores on the WSAS and K-10 scores.

Mentions: Finally, we briefly examined the association between the rate of cannabis use by cases across the four distress/impairment sub-groups. Figure 2 shows the proportion of individuals in each group using cannabis at different frequencies (collapsed from five to three categories: less than monthly, less than weekly, daily or almost daily). The patterns of cannabis consumption suggest that whilst infrequent use (one to two occasions) does not differentiate between groups, consumption of cannabis on a weekly basis is associated with a 'dose-response’ profile, whilst the highest levels of consumption (daily or almost daily cannabis use) are associated with the groups with the highest levels of impairment, irrespective of distress level.Figure 2


Distress and disability in young adults presenting to clinical services with mood disorders.

Scott EM, Hermens DF, Naismith SL, Guastella AJ, White D, Whitwell BG, Lagopoulos J, Scott J, Hickie IB - Int J Bipolar Disord (2013)

Frequency of cannabis use in the last 3 months. In groups defined according to high and low scores on the WSAS and K-10 scores.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230434&req=5

Fig2: Frequency of cannabis use in the last 3 months. In groups defined according to high and low scores on the WSAS and K-10 scores.
Mentions: Finally, we briefly examined the association between the rate of cannabis use by cases across the four distress/impairment sub-groups. Figure 2 shows the proportion of individuals in each group using cannabis at different frequencies (collapsed from five to three categories: less than monthly, less than weekly, daily or almost daily). The patterns of cannabis consumption suggest that whilst infrequent use (one to two occasions) does not differentiate between groups, consumption of cannabis on a weekly basis is associated with a 'dose-response’ profile, whilst the highest levels of consumption (daily or almost daily cannabis use) are associated with the groups with the highest levels of impairment, irrespective of distress level.Figure 2

Bottom Line: The MNLR analysis demonstrated that younger age was associated with lower impairment groups (irrespective of distress level), whilst male gender was associated with lower distress (irrespective of impairment).Compared to the low impairment/distress cases, the high impairment/distress group was significantly more likely to use cannabis and/or alcohol.Age, substance use and possibly gender are probably better predictors of distress/impairment sub-group than mood disorder sub-type in youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Research Unit, Brain & Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney, 100 Mallett Street, Camperdown, New South Wales 2050 Australia ; School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame, 160 Oxford Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Distress and/or dysfunction are well established as key reasons for help-seeking. We explore the characteristics of groups defined by high or low distress or disability in young people with unipolar depression (UP) or bipolar disorder (BD).

Methods: Individuals aged 12 to 25 years presenting to youth mental health services for the first time with a primary diagnosis of UP or BD were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler-10) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Four groups with high or low distress or impairment were defined (according to scores above or below the group medians for the Kessler-10 and WSAS). Multinomial logistic regression (MNLR) was used to examine how cases with high levels of distress and disability (reference group) differed from the other three groups.

Results and discussion: The sample comprised 1,746 cases (90% UP, 56% female) with a median age of 17.5 years. Median scores on the Kessler-10 and WSAS were both high (30 and 20, respectively) and were significantly inter-correlated (r = 0.62); the high impairment/distress group was the largest sub-group (39% of cases). The MNLR analysis demonstrated that younger age was associated with lower impairment groups (irrespective of distress level), whilst male gender was associated with lower distress (irrespective of impairment). Compared to the low impairment/distress cases, the high impairment/distress group was significantly more likely to use cannabis and/or alcohol. Age, substance use and possibly gender are probably better predictors of distress/impairment sub-group than mood disorder sub-type in youth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus