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Frequency of APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms in the Zambian population.

Atadzhanov M, Mwaba MH, Mukomena PN, Lakhi S, Mwaba P, Rayaprolu S, Meschia JF, Ross OA - BMC Res Notes (2014)

Bottom Line: Polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein-E (APOE), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genes has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other complex diseases in various populations.The ε2ε2 genotype and TT genotype were absent in the Zambian population.The genetic distances between Zambian and other African and non-African major populations revealed an independent variability of these polymorphisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, University of Zambia, P,O,Box 51237, Lusaka, Zambia. masharip.atadzhanov@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein-E (APOE), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genes has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other complex diseases in various populations. The aim of the study was to analyze the allelic and genotypic frequencies of APOE, MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D gene polymorphisms in the Zambian population.

Results: The allele frequencies of APOE polymorphism in the Zambian populations were 13.8%, 59.5% and 26.7% for the ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles respectively. MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D allele frequencies were 8.6% and 13.8% for the T and D minor alleles respectively. The ε2ε2 genotype and TT genotype were absent in the Zambian population. The genetic distances between Zambian and other African and non-African major populations revealed an independent variability of these polymorphisms.

Conclusion: We found that the APOE ε3 allele and the I allele of the ACE were significantly high in our study population while there were low frequencies observed for the MTHFR 677 T and ACE D alleles. Our analysis of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms may provide valuable insight into the understanding of the disease risk in the Zambian population.

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Distribution of the APOE ε4, MTHFR 677 T and ACE D allele frequencies in the African populations.
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Figure 2: Distribution of the APOE ε4, MTHFR 677 T and ACE D allele frequencies in the African populations.

Mentions: The frequency of APOE polymorphisms is highly heterogeneous among African [2,47,63] and other populations [26] (Figures 1,2). This heterogeneity illustrates the geographical and ethnic variations resulting from the evolutionary process. It has been suggested that APOE ε2 and ε3 alleles arose by mutation of the ε4 allele [19]. Past studies have showed that the ε3 allele is more widely distributed probably because of positive selection for this allele in these regions [19,26].


Frequency of APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms in the Zambian population.

Atadzhanov M, Mwaba MH, Mukomena PN, Lakhi S, Mwaba P, Rayaprolu S, Meschia JF, Ross OA - BMC Res Notes (2014)

Distribution of the APOE ε4, MTHFR 677 T and ACE D allele frequencies in the African populations.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230427&req=5

Figure 2: Distribution of the APOE ε4, MTHFR 677 T and ACE D allele frequencies in the African populations.
Mentions: The frequency of APOE polymorphisms is highly heterogeneous among African [2,47,63] and other populations [26] (Figures 1,2). This heterogeneity illustrates the geographical and ethnic variations resulting from the evolutionary process. It has been suggested that APOE ε2 and ε3 alleles arose by mutation of the ε4 allele [19]. Past studies have showed that the ε3 allele is more widely distributed probably because of positive selection for this allele in these regions [19,26].

Bottom Line: Polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein-E (APOE), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genes has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other complex diseases in various populations.The ε2ε2 genotype and TT genotype were absent in the Zambian population.The genetic distances between Zambian and other African and non-African major populations revealed an independent variability of these polymorphisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, University of Zambia, P,O,Box 51237, Lusaka, Zambia. masharip.atadzhanov@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein-E (APOE), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genes has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other complex diseases in various populations. The aim of the study was to analyze the allelic and genotypic frequencies of APOE, MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D gene polymorphisms in the Zambian population.

Results: The allele frequencies of APOE polymorphism in the Zambian populations were 13.8%, 59.5% and 26.7% for the ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles respectively. MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D allele frequencies were 8.6% and 13.8% for the T and D minor alleles respectively. The ε2ε2 genotype and TT genotype were absent in the Zambian population. The genetic distances between Zambian and other African and non-African major populations revealed an independent variability of these polymorphisms.

Conclusion: We found that the APOE ε3 allele and the I allele of the ACE were significantly high in our study population while there were low frequencies observed for the MTHFR 677 T and ACE D alleles. Our analysis of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms may provide valuable insight into the understanding of the disease risk in the Zambian population.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus