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Antinociceptive effect of some extracts from Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ssp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech. f. aerial parts.

Khanavi M, Davoodipoor AM, Sadati SN, Ardekani MR, Sharifzadeh M - Daru (2014)

Bottom Line: Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella is an exclusive subspecies of Ajuga chamaecistus in the flora of Iran.Total water and diethyl ether extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed a very significant analgesic activity on the chronic phase (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively).The results of this study suggest that the extracts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella have an analgesic property that supports traditional use of Ajuga genus for joint pain and other inflammatory diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Iranian Medicine and Traditional Iranian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. n_sadati@sina.tums.ac.ir.

ABSTRACT

Background: The genus Ajuga is used for the treatment of joint pain, gout, and jaundice in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella is an exclusive subspecies of Ajuga chamaecistus in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate antinociceptive properties of some extracts from aerial parts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella.

Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total water and 80% methanol extracts, hexane, diethyl ether and n-butanolic partition fractions of the methanolic extract were analyzed using the formalin test in mice. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls, respectively.

Results: Oral administration of all extracts (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) 30 min before formalin injection had no effect against the acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection) of the formalin-induced licking time, but hexane fraction (200 mg/kg) caused a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the chronic phase (15-60 min after formalin injection). Total water and diethyl ether extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed a very significant analgesic activity on the chronic phase (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively).

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the extracts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella have an analgesic property that supports traditional use of Ajuga genus for joint pain and other inflammatory diseases.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of different extracts of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella on chronic phase of formalin- induced pain. Different doses of all extracts (200, 400, 600 mg/kg), a) Total water extract, b) Total methanol extract, c) Hexane fraction, d) Diethyl ether fraction, and e) N-Butanol fraction, were administered to mice by oral tube. Control group received normal saline. All extracts of the plant were administered 30 min before formalin injection. Antinociception was recorded 15–60 min (Chronic phase), after formalin injection. Each point is the mean ± S.E.M of at least 7 animals. Control (normal saline), IND (Indomethacin). *p<0.05,** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (as compared with normal saline), #p<0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 (as compared with Indomethacin).
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Figure 1: Effects of different extracts of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella on chronic phase of formalin- induced pain. Different doses of all extracts (200, 400, 600 mg/kg), a) Total water extract, b) Total methanol extract, c) Hexane fraction, d) Diethyl ether fraction, and e) N-Butanol fraction, were administered to mice by oral tube. Control group received normal saline. All extracts of the plant were administered 30 min before formalin injection. Antinociception was recorded 15–60 min (Chronic phase), after formalin injection. Each point is the mean ± S.E.M of at least 7 animals. Control (normal saline), IND (Indomethacin). *p<0.05,** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (as compared with normal saline), #p<0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 (as compared with Indomethacin).

Mentions: In the present study, antinociceptive activity of total water, 80% methanol extracts, and three fractions of methanolic extract from the aerial parts of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella were evaluated in a nociception model in mice. All extracts were administered by a gastrointestinal tube at different doses (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) 30 min before intraplantar injection of formalin (20 μl, 0.5%). The licking time was 40.29 ± 5.76 for indomethacin (10 mg/kg) in the acute phase. There was no significant difference between indomethacin and all treated extracts (Table 1).Figure 1 shows the antinociceptive effects of all extracts at different doses on the chronic phase of pain induction. Results demonstrated that hexane fraction (200 mg/kg), diethyl ether fraction and total water extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.001) affected the duration of licking in the chronic phase, which was comparable to indomethacin (10 mg/kg). The total methanol extract (600 mg/kg) and n-butanolic (600 mg/kg) fraction also exhibited a reduction on the duration of licking in the chronic phase (p < 0.01).Comparison of the antinociceptive activity of all extracts showed that the maximum inhibitory response was obtained with 200 mg/kg of hexane fraction. According to results, there was no significant difference between the analgesic effect of total water extract and hexane fraction at a dose of 400 mg/kg, diethyl ether fraction (600 mg/kg), n-butanol fraction (600 mg/kg), and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) as an NSAID (Figure 2).


Antinociceptive effect of some extracts from Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ssp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech. f. aerial parts.

Khanavi M, Davoodipoor AM, Sadati SN, Ardekani MR, Sharifzadeh M - Daru (2014)

Effects of different extracts of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella on chronic phase of formalin- induced pain. Different doses of all extracts (200, 400, 600 mg/kg), a) Total water extract, b) Total methanol extract, c) Hexane fraction, d) Diethyl ether fraction, and e) N-Butanol fraction, were administered to mice by oral tube. Control group received normal saline. All extracts of the plant were administered 30 min before formalin injection. Antinociception was recorded 15–60 min (Chronic phase), after formalin injection. Each point is the mean ± S.E.M of at least 7 animals. Control (normal saline), IND (Indomethacin). *p<0.05,** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (as compared with normal saline), #p<0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 (as compared with Indomethacin).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230404&req=5

Figure 1: Effects of different extracts of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella on chronic phase of formalin- induced pain. Different doses of all extracts (200, 400, 600 mg/kg), a) Total water extract, b) Total methanol extract, c) Hexane fraction, d) Diethyl ether fraction, and e) N-Butanol fraction, were administered to mice by oral tube. Control group received normal saline. All extracts of the plant were administered 30 min before formalin injection. Antinociception was recorded 15–60 min (Chronic phase), after formalin injection. Each point is the mean ± S.E.M of at least 7 animals. Control (normal saline), IND (Indomethacin). *p<0.05,** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (as compared with normal saline), #p<0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 (as compared with Indomethacin).
Mentions: In the present study, antinociceptive activity of total water, 80% methanol extracts, and three fractions of methanolic extract from the aerial parts of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella were evaluated in a nociception model in mice. All extracts were administered by a gastrointestinal tube at different doses (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) 30 min before intraplantar injection of formalin (20 μl, 0.5%). The licking time was 40.29 ± 5.76 for indomethacin (10 mg/kg) in the acute phase. There was no significant difference between indomethacin and all treated extracts (Table 1).Figure 1 shows the antinociceptive effects of all extracts at different doses on the chronic phase of pain induction. Results demonstrated that hexane fraction (200 mg/kg), diethyl ether fraction and total water extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.001) affected the duration of licking in the chronic phase, which was comparable to indomethacin (10 mg/kg). The total methanol extract (600 mg/kg) and n-butanolic (600 mg/kg) fraction also exhibited a reduction on the duration of licking in the chronic phase (p < 0.01).Comparison of the antinociceptive activity of all extracts showed that the maximum inhibitory response was obtained with 200 mg/kg of hexane fraction. According to results, there was no significant difference between the analgesic effect of total water extract and hexane fraction at a dose of 400 mg/kg, diethyl ether fraction (600 mg/kg), n-butanol fraction (600 mg/kg), and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) as an NSAID (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella is an exclusive subspecies of Ajuga chamaecistus in the flora of Iran.Total water and diethyl ether extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed a very significant analgesic activity on the chronic phase (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively).The results of this study suggest that the extracts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella have an analgesic property that supports traditional use of Ajuga genus for joint pain and other inflammatory diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Iranian Medicine and Traditional Iranian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. n_sadati@sina.tums.ac.ir.

ABSTRACT

Background: The genus Ajuga is used for the treatment of joint pain, gout, and jaundice in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella is an exclusive subspecies of Ajuga chamaecistus in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate antinociceptive properties of some extracts from aerial parts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella.

Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total water and 80% methanol extracts, hexane, diethyl ether and n-butanolic partition fractions of the methanolic extract were analyzed using the formalin test in mice. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls, respectively.

Results: Oral administration of all extracts (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) 30 min before formalin injection had no effect against the acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection) of the formalin-induced licking time, but hexane fraction (200 mg/kg) caused a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the chronic phase (15-60 min after formalin injection). Total water and diethyl ether extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed a very significant analgesic activity on the chronic phase (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively).

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the extracts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella have an analgesic property that supports traditional use of Ajuga genus for joint pain and other inflammatory diseases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus