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The processing of faces across non-rigid facial transformation develops at 7 month of age: a fNIRS-adaptation study.

Kobayashi M, Otsuka Y, Kanazawa S, Yamaguchi MK, Kakigi R - BMC Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: In addition, we revealed that size-invariant processing of facial identity develops by 5 months of age (NR 23:984-988, 2012), while view-invariant processing develops around 7 months of age (FiHN 5:153, 2011).The aim in the current study was to examine whether infants' brains process facial identity across the non-rigid transformation of facial features by using the neural adaptation paradigm.Our results suggest that the processing of facial identity with non-rigid facial transformation develops around 7 months after birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan. megumik@nips.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT

Background: Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), our previous neural adaptation studies found that infants' bilateral temporal regions process facial identity (FiHN 5:153, 2011). In addition, we revealed that size-invariant processing of facial identity develops by 5 months of age (NR 23:984-988, 2012), while view-invariant processing develops around 7 months of age (FiHN 5:153, 2011). The aim in the current study was to examine whether infants' brains process facial identity across the non-rigid transformation of facial features by using the neural adaptation paradigm. We used NIRS to compare hemodynamic changes in the bilateral temporal areas of 5- to 6-month-olds and 7- to 8-month-olds during presentations of an identical face and of different faces.

Results: We found that (1) the oxyhemoglobin concentration around the T5 and T6 positions increased significantly during the presentation of different faces only in 7- to 8-month-olds and (2) 7- to 8-month-olds, but not 5- to 6-month-olds, showed attenuation in these channels to the presentation of the same face rather than to the presentation of different faces, regardless of non-rigid changes in facial features.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the processing of facial identity with non-rigid facial transformation develops around 7 months after birth.

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Mean Z-score of oxy- and deoxy-Hb (A-D) and the channels that showed significant increases of oxy-Hb (E). (A-D) The black bar represents the mean Z-score of the different-face condition, and the white bar represents that of the same-face condition. For 5- to 6-month-olds (A and B), deoxy-Hb in the same-face condition significantly decreased in the right temporal area. At 7- to 8-month-olds (C and D), oxy-Hb concentration in both temporal areas significantly increased compared to the baseline (0). Furthermore, oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in bilateral temporal areas significantly differed between the same-face and different-face condition. (E) The channels showed significant increases of oxy-Hb in the different-face condition compared to the baseline period in 7- to 8-month-olds (two-tailed t-test, p < .05). The significant p-value α was determined on the basis of the method of controlling the false discovery rate. In these channels, oxy-Hb concentration differed significantly between the same-face condition and the different-face condition. (The infant’s parents provided written informed consent for publication of this photograph.).
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Figure 2: Mean Z-score of oxy- and deoxy-Hb (A-D) and the channels that showed significant increases of oxy-Hb (E). (A-D) The black bar represents the mean Z-score of the different-face condition, and the white bar represents that of the same-face condition. For 5- to 6-month-olds (A and B), deoxy-Hb in the same-face condition significantly decreased in the right temporal area. At 7- to 8-month-olds (C and D), oxy-Hb concentration in both temporal areas significantly increased compared to the baseline (0). Furthermore, oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in bilateral temporal areas significantly differed between the same-face and different-face condition. (E) The channels showed significant increases of oxy-Hb in the different-face condition compared to the baseline period in 7- to 8-month-olds (two-tailed t-test, p < .05). The significant p-value α was determined on the basis of the method of controlling the false discovery rate. In these channels, oxy-Hb concentration differed significantly between the same-face condition and the different-face condition. (The infant’s parents provided written informed consent for publication of this photograph.).

Mentions: A repeated-measures ANOVA with age (5- to 6-month-olds vs. 7- to 8-month-olds) as a between-subject factor, and condition (same-face vs. different-face) and measurement area (right vs. left) as the within-subject factor, was separately performed on the average Z-score of oxy- and deoxy-Hb from 3 s to 7 s of the test trial in each temporal area (Figure 2A-D). This analysis revealed a significant interaction between age and condition for oxy-Hb (F(1,22) = 6.26, p < .05, η2 = .53). According to multiple comparisons, the oxy-Hb concentration in the different-face condition was significantly higher than that of the same-face condition for the older group (F(1,11) = 9.47, p < .01, η2 = .92). No main effect or other interaction reached statistical significance (main effect: age p = .82, condition p = .07, hemisphere p = .13; interaction: between age and hemisphere p = .06, between condition and hemisphere p = .25, between 3 factors p = .88). For deoxy-Hb, the interaction between age and condition was also significant (F(1,22) = 5.25, p < .05, η2 = .48). Multiple comparisons revealed that deoxy-Hb in the 7- to 8-month-olds significantly differed between the two conditions (F(1, 22) = 4.61, p < .05, η2 = .45). No main effect or other interaction reached statistical significance (main effect: age p = .17, condition p = .46, hemisphere p = .26; interaction: between age and hemisphere p = .71, between condition and hemisphere p = .76, between 3 factors p = .85).


The processing of faces across non-rigid facial transformation develops at 7 month of age: a fNIRS-adaptation study.

Kobayashi M, Otsuka Y, Kanazawa S, Yamaguchi MK, Kakigi R - BMC Neurosci (2014)

Mean Z-score of oxy- and deoxy-Hb (A-D) and the channels that showed significant increases of oxy-Hb (E). (A-D) The black bar represents the mean Z-score of the different-face condition, and the white bar represents that of the same-face condition. For 5- to 6-month-olds (A and B), deoxy-Hb in the same-face condition significantly decreased in the right temporal area. At 7- to 8-month-olds (C and D), oxy-Hb concentration in both temporal areas significantly increased compared to the baseline (0). Furthermore, oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in bilateral temporal areas significantly differed between the same-face and different-face condition. (E) The channels showed significant increases of oxy-Hb in the different-face condition compared to the baseline period in 7- to 8-month-olds (two-tailed t-test, p < .05). The significant p-value α was determined on the basis of the method of controlling the false discovery rate. In these channels, oxy-Hb concentration differed significantly between the same-face condition and the different-face condition. (The infant’s parents provided written informed consent for publication of this photograph.).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230271&req=5

Figure 2: Mean Z-score of oxy- and deoxy-Hb (A-D) and the channels that showed significant increases of oxy-Hb (E). (A-D) The black bar represents the mean Z-score of the different-face condition, and the white bar represents that of the same-face condition. For 5- to 6-month-olds (A and B), deoxy-Hb in the same-face condition significantly decreased in the right temporal area. At 7- to 8-month-olds (C and D), oxy-Hb concentration in both temporal areas significantly increased compared to the baseline (0). Furthermore, oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in bilateral temporal areas significantly differed between the same-face and different-face condition. (E) The channels showed significant increases of oxy-Hb in the different-face condition compared to the baseline period in 7- to 8-month-olds (two-tailed t-test, p < .05). The significant p-value α was determined on the basis of the method of controlling the false discovery rate. In these channels, oxy-Hb concentration differed significantly between the same-face condition and the different-face condition. (The infant’s parents provided written informed consent for publication of this photograph.).
Mentions: A repeated-measures ANOVA with age (5- to 6-month-olds vs. 7- to 8-month-olds) as a between-subject factor, and condition (same-face vs. different-face) and measurement area (right vs. left) as the within-subject factor, was separately performed on the average Z-score of oxy- and deoxy-Hb from 3 s to 7 s of the test trial in each temporal area (Figure 2A-D). This analysis revealed a significant interaction between age and condition for oxy-Hb (F(1,22) = 6.26, p < .05, η2 = .53). According to multiple comparisons, the oxy-Hb concentration in the different-face condition was significantly higher than that of the same-face condition for the older group (F(1,11) = 9.47, p < .01, η2 = .92). No main effect or other interaction reached statistical significance (main effect: age p = .82, condition p = .07, hemisphere p = .13; interaction: between age and hemisphere p = .06, between condition and hemisphere p = .25, between 3 factors p = .88). For deoxy-Hb, the interaction between age and condition was also significant (F(1,22) = 5.25, p < .05, η2 = .48). Multiple comparisons revealed that deoxy-Hb in the 7- to 8-month-olds significantly differed between the two conditions (F(1, 22) = 4.61, p < .05, η2 = .45). No main effect or other interaction reached statistical significance (main effect: age p = .17, condition p = .46, hemisphere p = .26; interaction: between age and hemisphere p = .71, between condition and hemisphere p = .76, between 3 factors p = .85).

Bottom Line: In addition, we revealed that size-invariant processing of facial identity develops by 5 months of age (NR 23:984-988, 2012), while view-invariant processing develops around 7 months of age (FiHN 5:153, 2011).The aim in the current study was to examine whether infants' brains process facial identity across the non-rigid transformation of facial features by using the neural adaptation paradigm.Our results suggest that the processing of facial identity with non-rigid facial transformation develops around 7 months after birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan. megumik@nips.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT

Background: Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), our previous neural adaptation studies found that infants' bilateral temporal regions process facial identity (FiHN 5:153, 2011). In addition, we revealed that size-invariant processing of facial identity develops by 5 months of age (NR 23:984-988, 2012), while view-invariant processing develops around 7 months of age (FiHN 5:153, 2011). The aim in the current study was to examine whether infants' brains process facial identity across the non-rigid transformation of facial features by using the neural adaptation paradigm. We used NIRS to compare hemodynamic changes in the bilateral temporal areas of 5- to 6-month-olds and 7- to 8-month-olds during presentations of an identical face and of different faces.

Results: We found that (1) the oxyhemoglobin concentration around the T5 and T6 positions increased significantly during the presentation of different faces only in 7- to 8-month-olds and (2) 7- to 8-month-olds, but not 5- to 6-month-olds, showed attenuation in these channels to the presentation of the same face rather than to the presentation of different faces, regardless of non-rigid changes in facial features.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the processing of facial identity with non-rigid facial transformation develops around 7 months after birth.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus