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Historical factors that have shaped the evolution of tropical reef fishes: a review of phylogenies, biogeography, and remaining questions.

Cowman PF - Front Genet (2014)

Bottom Line: How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics?I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns.By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity patterns across the marine tropics have intrigued evolutionary biologists and ecologists alike. Tropical coral reefs host 1/3 of all marine species of fish on 0.1% of the ocean's surface. Yet our understanding of how mechanistic processes have underpinned the generation of this diversity is limited. However, it has become clear that the biogeographic history of the marine tropics has played an important role in shaping the diversity of tropical reef fishes we see today. In the last decade, molecular phylogenies and age estimation techniques have provided a temporal framework in which the ancestral biogeographic origins of reef fish lineages have been inferred, but few have included fully sampled phylogenies or made inferences at a global scale. We are currently at a point where new sequencing technologies are accelerating the reconstruction and the resolution of the Fish Tree of Life. How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics? Here, I review the literature concerning the evolutionary history of reef-associated fishes from a biogeographic perspective. I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns. By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages. Finally, I discuss questions that remain to be answered and new approaches to uncover the mechanistic processes that underpin the evolution of biodiversity on coral reefs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic sampling of nine reef fish families across the marine tropics. (A–I) Global maps of tropical ecoregions displaying phylogenetic sampling of species assemblages for each of the nine characteristic reef fish families. Species richness for each family within ecoregions is base on species checklist of species counts from the “checklist” × “all species” dataset of Kulbicki et al. (2013) and phylogenetic sampling is based on taxon sampling of each published family phylogeny (Figure 2; Table 1). Ecoregions that have <10% of the family species pool represented are outlined in black.
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Figure 4: Phylogenetic sampling of nine reef fish families across the marine tropics. (A–I) Global maps of tropical ecoregions displaying phylogenetic sampling of species assemblages for each of the nine characteristic reef fish families. Species richness for each family within ecoregions is base on species checklist of species counts from the “checklist” × “all species” dataset of Kulbicki et al. (2013) and phylogenetic sampling is based on taxon sampling of each published family phylogeny (Figure 2; Table 1). Ecoregions that have <10% of the family species pool represented are outlined in black.

Mentions: Of the valid nominal species in the nine reef fish families, these geographic checklists (Kulbicki et al., 2013; Parravicini et al., 2013) include the vast majority of them, ranging from 63% of carangid species, to 100% of acanthurid species (Table 1). These data are likely to include the majority, if not all reef associated members of these families. In combination with a fully sampled phylogeny of reef fishes, these geographic data would allow us to tease apart some of the questions that have been partially answered so far regarded the origins of tropical biodiversity. Unfortunately, fully sampled phylogenies for important groups are still out of reach. The incomplete and clade biased phylogenetic sampling also translates into a bias in geographic sampling (Figure 4). Those charismatic families such as the Labridae and Chaetodontidae that have been the focus of several papers from a variety of research groups have more even phylogenetic sampling across biogeographic ecoregions, with over 50% of taxa present in each region represented in a published phylogeny (Figures 4A,B). A sampling bias can be observed among ocean basins, and among families, where some families (Apogonidae, Blenniidae; Figures 4E,F) have higher phylogenetic sampling in Indo-Pacific locations, whereas others (Pomacentridae, Mullidae, Carangidae; Figures 4C,H,I) show higher phylogenetic sampling in the Atlantic locations. Overall, the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Mullidae and Carangidae show concerning levels of lower phylogenetic resolution across tropical reef habitats (Figures 4E,F,H,I) with many regions showing below 10% phylogenetic sampling of ecoregion assemblages. Nonetheless, the geographic data available, regardless of its sampling in phylogenetic trees, have been fruitful in delineating biogeographic regions across the marine tropics.


Historical factors that have shaped the evolution of tropical reef fishes: a review of phylogenies, biogeography, and remaining questions.

Cowman PF - Front Genet (2014)

Phylogenetic sampling of nine reef fish families across the marine tropics. (A–I) Global maps of tropical ecoregions displaying phylogenetic sampling of species assemblages for each of the nine characteristic reef fish families. Species richness for each family within ecoregions is base on species checklist of species counts from the “checklist” × “all species” dataset of Kulbicki et al. (2013) and phylogenetic sampling is based on taxon sampling of each published family phylogeny (Figure 2; Table 1). Ecoregions that have <10% of the family species pool represented are outlined in black.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230204&req=5

Figure 4: Phylogenetic sampling of nine reef fish families across the marine tropics. (A–I) Global maps of tropical ecoregions displaying phylogenetic sampling of species assemblages for each of the nine characteristic reef fish families. Species richness for each family within ecoregions is base on species checklist of species counts from the “checklist” × “all species” dataset of Kulbicki et al. (2013) and phylogenetic sampling is based on taxon sampling of each published family phylogeny (Figure 2; Table 1). Ecoregions that have <10% of the family species pool represented are outlined in black.
Mentions: Of the valid nominal species in the nine reef fish families, these geographic checklists (Kulbicki et al., 2013; Parravicini et al., 2013) include the vast majority of them, ranging from 63% of carangid species, to 100% of acanthurid species (Table 1). These data are likely to include the majority, if not all reef associated members of these families. In combination with a fully sampled phylogeny of reef fishes, these geographic data would allow us to tease apart some of the questions that have been partially answered so far regarded the origins of tropical biodiversity. Unfortunately, fully sampled phylogenies for important groups are still out of reach. The incomplete and clade biased phylogenetic sampling also translates into a bias in geographic sampling (Figure 4). Those charismatic families such as the Labridae and Chaetodontidae that have been the focus of several papers from a variety of research groups have more even phylogenetic sampling across biogeographic ecoregions, with over 50% of taxa present in each region represented in a published phylogeny (Figures 4A,B). A sampling bias can be observed among ocean basins, and among families, where some families (Apogonidae, Blenniidae; Figures 4E,F) have higher phylogenetic sampling in Indo-Pacific locations, whereas others (Pomacentridae, Mullidae, Carangidae; Figures 4C,H,I) show higher phylogenetic sampling in the Atlantic locations. Overall, the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Mullidae and Carangidae show concerning levels of lower phylogenetic resolution across tropical reef habitats (Figures 4E,F,H,I) with many regions showing below 10% phylogenetic sampling of ecoregion assemblages. Nonetheless, the geographic data available, regardless of its sampling in phylogenetic trees, have been fruitful in delineating biogeographic regions across the marine tropics.

Bottom Line: How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics?I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns.By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity patterns across the marine tropics have intrigued evolutionary biologists and ecologists alike. Tropical coral reefs host 1/3 of all marine species of fish on 0.1% of the ocean's surface. Yet our understanding of how mechanistic processes have underpinned the generation of this diversity is limited. However, it has become clear that the biogeographic history of the marine tropics has played an important role in shaping the diversity of tropical reef fishes we see today. In the last decade, molecular phylogenies and age estimation techniques have provided a temporal framework in which the ancestral biogeographic origins of reef fish lineages have been inferred, but few have included fully sampled phylogenies or made inferences at a global scale. We are currently at a point where new sequencing technologies are accelerating the reconstruction and the resolution of the Fish Tree of Life. How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics? Here, I review the literature concerning the evolutionary history of reef-associated fishes from a biogeographic perspective. I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns. By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages. Finally, I discuss questions that remain to be answered and new approaches to uncover the mechanistic processes that underpin the evolution of biodiversity on coral reefs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus