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Historical factors that have shaped the evolution of tropical reef fishes: a review of phylogenies, biogeography, and remaining questions.

Cowman PF - Front Genet (2014)

Bottom Line: How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics?I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns.By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity patterns across the marine tropics have intrigued evolutionary biologists and ecologists alike. Tropical coral reefs host 1/3 of all marine species of fish on 0.1% of the ocean's surface. Yet our understanding of how mechanistic processes have underpinned the generation of this diversity is limited. However, it has become clear that the biogeographic history of the marine tropics has played an important role in shaping the diversity of tropical reef fishes we see today. In the last decade, molecular phylogenies and age estimation techniques have provided a temporal framework in which the ancestral biogeographic origins of reef fish lineages have been inferred, but few have included fully sampled phylogenies or made inferences at a global scale. We are currently at a point where new sequencing technologies are accelerating the reconstruction and the resolution of the Fish Tree of Life. How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics? Here, I review the literature concerning the evolutionary history of reef-associated fishes from a biogeographic perspective. I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns. By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages. Finally, I discuss questions that remain to be answered and new approaches to uncover the mechanistic processes that underpin the evolution of biodiversity on coral reefs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Species richness, endemism and provinciality of tropical reef fishes. (A) Map of species biodiversity by tropical ecoregion (Spalding et al., 2007) with color gradient denoting areas of high species richness (dark red) to areas of low species richness (light red). (B) Map of endemic species by ecoregion. Under this scheme a species is endemic if it is only found in a single ecoregion, i.e., a regional assessment of endemism rather that designated by percent of area comparison (Hughes et al., 2002). Species richness and endemic estimates are based on species counts from the “checklist” × “all species” dataset of Kulbicki et al. (2013). (C) Biogeographic delineation of tropical Realms, Regions, and Provinces based on species dissimilarity analysis of Kulbicki et al. (2013). This biogeographic scheme is base on checklists as base units (see Kulbicki et al., 2013), however here the scheme is imposed onto the tropical ecoregions of Spalding et al. (2007).
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Figure 1: Species richness, endemism and provinciality of tropical reef fishes. (A) Map of species biodiversity by tropical ecoregion (Spalding et al., 2007) with color gradient denoting areas of high species richness (dark red) to areas of low species richness (light red). (B) Map of endemic species by ecoregion. Under this scheme a species is endemic if it is only found in a single ecoregion, i.e., a regional assessment of endemism rather that designated by percent of area comparison (Hughes et al., 2002). Species richness and endemic estimates are based on species counts from the “checklist” × “all species” dataset of Kulbicki et al. (2013). (C) Biogeographic delineation of tropical Realms, Regions, and Provinces based on species dissimilarity analysis of Kulbicki et al. (2013). This biogeographic scheme is base on checklists as base units (see Kulbicki et al., 2013), however here the scheme is imposed onto the tropical ecoregions of Spalding et al. (2007).

Mentions: A latitudinal gradient in species diversity is a common feature of many taxonomic groups, both terrestrial and marine (Willig et al., 2003; Hillebrand, 2004). However, a longitudinal gradient in species diversity is also apparent across the marine tropics. Fishes exemplify this diversity gradient (Hughes et al., 2002; Tittensor et al., 2010) driven largely by patterns of species richness associated with tropical coral reef habitats. Species richness of reef associated fishes forms an enigmatic “bullseye” pattern centered on the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA; Figure 1A). This region has also been called several other names (reviewed by Hoeksema, 2007), but its position at the center of this species richness gradient has given it status as the largest marine biodiversity hotspot, covering two thirds of the global equatorial tropics (Bellwood et al., 2012). Unlike terrestrial biodiversity hotspots (Myers, 1988; Myers et al., 2000), centers of endemism are not concordant with the center of highest species diversity, whether endemic species are defined by regional checklists (Figure 1B), or the extent of their geographic range (Hughes et al., 2002; but see Mora et al., 2003). Traditional hotspot analysis of the marine environment has identified endemic centers under high levels of threat (Roberts et al., 2008), however these 10 defined areas of endemism exclude some areas that have the high diversity of overlapping, wide ranging species. In addition to the distinctive biodiversity gradient, the tropics have been divided into a number of realms, regions, provinces and eco-regions based on shared environmental characteristics (Spalding et al., 2007), composition of endemic taxa (Briggs and Bowen, 2012), or measures of species dissimilarity (Kulbicki et al., 2013). Although these differing regional schemes are based on present day patterns, it appears that the division of regional assemblages across the tropics is linked to its biogeographic history and the formation of several historical barriers to dispersal (Cowman and Bellwood, 2013a,b). While environmental clines in sea surface temperature are linked to latitudinal variation in diversity (Tittensor et al., 2010), the extensive tectonic, eustatic, climatic, oceanographic and geomorphological (TECOG; Bellwood et al., 2012) processes have played an important role in the origin and maintenance of the tropical biodiversity gradient spanning both deep and shallow times scales (Renema et al., 2008; Pellissier et al., 2014).


Historical factors that have shaped the evolution of tropical reef fishes: a review of phylogenies, biogeography, and remaining questions.

Cowman PF - Front Genet (2014)

Species richness, endemism and provinciality of tropical reef fishes. (A) Map of species biodiversity by tropical ecoregion (Spalding et al., 2007) with color gradient denoting areas of high species richness (dark red) to areas of low species richness (light red). (B) Map of endemic species by ecoregion. Under this scheme a species is endemic if it is only found in a single ecoregion, i.e., a regional assessment of endemism rather that designated by percent of area comparison (Hughes et al., 2002). Species richness and endemic estimates are based on species counts from the “checklist” × “all species” dataset of Kulbicki et al. (2013). (C) Biogeographic delineation of tropical Realms, Regions, and Provinces based on species dissimilarity analysis of Kulbicki et al. (2013). This biogeographic scheme is base on checklists as base units (see Kulbicki et al., 2013), however here the scheme is imposed onto the tropical ecoregions of Spalding et al. (2007).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230204&req=5

Figure 1: Species richness, endemism and provinciality of tropical reef fishes. (A) Map of species biodiversity by tropical ecoregion (Spalding et al., 2007) with color gradient denoting areas of high species richness (dark red) to areas of low species richness (light red). (B) Map of endemic species by ecoregion. Under this scheme a species is endemic if it is only found in a single ecoregion, i.e., a regional assessment of endemism rather that designated by percent of area comparison (Hughes et al., 2002). Species richness and endemic estimates are based on species counts from the “checklist” × “all species” dataset of Kulbicki et al. (2013). (C) Biogeographic delineation of tropical Realms, Regions, and Provinces based on species dissimilarity analysis of Kulbicki et al. (2013). This biogeographic scheme is base on checklists as base units (see Kulbicki et al., 2013), however here the scheme is imposed onto the tropical ecoregions of Spalding et al. (2007).
Mentions: A latitudinal gradient in species diversity is a common feature of many taxonomic groups, both terrestrial and marine (Willig et al., 2003; Hillebrand, 2004). However, a longitudinal gradient in species diversity is also apparent across the marine tropics. Fishes exemplify this diversity gradient (Hughes et al., 2002; Tittensor et al., 2010) driven largely by patterns of species richness associated with tropical coral reef habitats. Species richness of reef associated fishes forms an enigmatic “bullseye” pattern centered on the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA; Figure 1A). This region has also been called several other names (reviewed by Hoeksema, 2007), but its position at the center of this species richness gradient has given it status as the largest marine biodiversity hotspot, covering two thirds of the global equatorial tropics (Bellwood et al., 2012). Unlike terrestrial biodiversity hotspots (Myers, 1988; Myers et al., 2000), centers of endemism are not concordant with the center of highest species diversity, whether endemic species are defined by regional checklists (Figure 1B), or the extent of their geographic range (Hughes et al., 2002; but see Mora et al., 2003). Traditional hotspot analysis of the marine environment has identified endemic centers under high levels of threat (Roberts et al., 2008), however these 10 defined areas of endemism exclude some areas that have the high diversity of overlapping, wide ranging species. In addition to the distinctive biodiversity gradient, the tropics have been divided into a number of realms, regions, provinces and eco-regions based on shared environmental characteristics (Spalding et al., 2007), composition of endemic taxa (Briggs and Bowen, 2012), or measures of species dissimilarity (Kulbicki et al., 2013). Although these differing regional schemes are based on present day patterns, it appears that the division of regional assemblages across the tropics is linked to its biogeographic history and the formation of several historical barriers to dispersal (Cowman and Bellwood, 2013a,b). While environmental clines in sea surface temperature are linked to latitudinal variation in diversity (Tittensor et al., 2010), the extensive tectonic, eustatic, climatic, oceanographic and geomorphological (TECOG; Bellwood et al., 2012) processes have played an important role in the origin and maintenance of the tropical biodiversity gradient spanning both deep and shallow times scales (Renema et al., 2008; Pellissier et al., 2014).

Bottom Line: How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics?I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns.By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity patterns across the marine tropics have intrigued evolutionary biologists and ecologists alike. Tropical coral reefs host 1/3 of all marine species of fish on 0.1% of the ocean's surface. Yet our understanding of how mechanistic processes have underpinned the generation of this diversity is limited. However, it has become clear that the biogeographic history of the marine tropics has played an important role in shaping the diversity of tropical reef fishes we see today. In the last decade, molecular phylogenies and age estimation techniques have provided a temporal framework in which the ancestral biogeographic origins of reef fish lineages have been inferred, but few have included fully sampled phylogenies or made inferences at a global scale. We are currently at a point where new sequencing technologies are accelerating the reconstruction and the resolution of the Fish Tree of Life. How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics? Here, I review the literature concerning the evolutionary history of reef-associated fishes from a biogeographic perspective. I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns. By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages. Finally, I discuss questions that remain to be answered and new approaches to uncover the mechanistic processes that underpin the evolution of biodiversity on coral reefs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus