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Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails.

Poole H, Terlouw DJ, Naunje A, Mzembe K, Stanton M, Betson M, Lalloo DG, Stothard JR - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Bottom Line: PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many (~25%) had haematuria and albuminuria.As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni.Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK. r.stothard@liv.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important.

Methods: In June 2012, schistosomiasis in Chikhwawa district, Malawi was assessed across 12 villages examining pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers by serological and parasitological diagnosis, as supplemented with urine-antigen and questionnaire-interview methods. Urinary tract morbidity was inferred by haematuria and albuminuria assays.

Results: In total, 49.5% (CI₉₅ 42.6-56.4) of 208 PSAC and 94.5% (CI₉₅ 90.9-98.1) of 165 mothers were seropositive for schistosomiasis, in 2 villages seroprevalence exceeded 75% in PSAC. Egg-patent urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis was observed; 17.7% (CI₉₅ 12.4-23.2) of PSAC and 45.1% (CI₉₅ 37.4-52.8) of mothers having active schistosomiasis by parasitological and urine-antigen testing combined. PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many (~25%) had haematuria and albuminuria. As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni. Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria.

Conclusions: Both PSAC and their mothers appear to be at significant risk of schistosomiasis and should be considered for treatment within the NCP of Malawi.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A sketch map of snail collecting sites around Chikhwawa showing the 12 villages surveyed for schistosomiasis as indicated by SEA-ELISA by pie-charts denoting prevalence in PSAC (black pie segment infected) and in mothers (outer line segment infected).
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Figure 1: A sketch map of snail collecting sites around Chikhwawa showing the 12 villages surveyed for schistosomiasis as indicated by SEA-ELISA by pie-charts denoting prevalence in PSAC (black pie segment infected) and in mothers (outer line segment infected).

Mentions: A continuous Malaria Indicator Survey assessing the year round intervention coverage and disease burden was ongoing in children aged 6-59 months and adults from over 50 villages within Chikhwawa [35,36]. In July 2012 a survey for schistosomiasis in PSAC was conducted alongside this survey in 12 villages that represent varied habitats within the local area, see Figure 1. At the point of survey, GPS co-ordinates in decimal degrees were taken using a handheld e-trex unit (Garmin, Southampton, UK) to enable later cartography. In line with rapid survey methods for schistosomiasis [11], a target of 15 consenting mothers each with a child aged between 6 months to 5 years from within the sampled village were invited to participate in a semi-random sample; if a mother was selected and had more than one child within this age range, then her other children were also included.


Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails.

Poole H, Terlouw DJ, Naunje A, Mzembe K, Stanton M, Betson M, Lalloo DG, Stothard JR - Parasit Vectors (2014)

A sketch map of snail collecting sites around Chikhwawa showing the 12 villages surveyed for schistosomiasis as indicated by SEA-ELISA by pie-charts denoting prevalence in PSAC (black pie segment infected) and in mothers (outer line segment infected).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230191&req=5

Figure 1: A sketch map of snail collecting sites around Chikhwawa showing the 12 villages surveyed for schistosomiasis as indicated by SEA-ELISA by pie-charts denoting prevalence in PSAC (black pie segment infected) and in mothers (outer line segment infected).
Mentions: A continuous Malaria Indicator Survey assessing the year round intervention coverage and disease burden was ongoing in children aged 6-59 months and adults from over 50 villages within Chikhwawa [35,36]. In July 2012 a survey for schistosomiasis in PSAC was conducted alongside this survey in 12 villages that represent varied habitats within the local area, see Figure 1. At the point of survey, GPS co-ordinates in decimal degrees were taken using a handheld e-trex unit (Garmin, Southampton, UK) to enable later cartography. In line with rapid survey methods for schistosomiasis [11], a target of 15 consenting mothers each with a child aged between 6 months to 5 years from within the sampled village were invited to participate in a semi-random sample; if a mother was selected and had more than one child within this age range, then her other children were also included.

Bottom Line: PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many (~25%) had haematuria and albuminuria.As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni.Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK. r.stothard@liv.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important.

Methods: In June 2012, schistosomiasis in Chikhwawa district, Malawi was assessed across 12 villages examining pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers by serological and parasitological diagnosis, as supplemented with urine-antigen and questionnaire-interview methods. Urinary tract morbidity was inferred by haematuria and albuminuria assays.

Results: In total, 49.5% (CI₉₅ 42.6-56.4) of 208 PSAC and 94.5% (CI₉₅ 90.9-98.1) of 165 mothers were seropositive for schistosomiasis, in 2 villages seroprevalence exceeded 75% in PSAC. Egg-patent urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis was observed; 17.7% (CI₉₅ 12.4-23.2) of PSAC and 45.1% (CI₉₅ 37.4-52.8) of mothers having active schistosomiasis by parasitological and urine-antigen testing combined. PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many (~25%) had haematuria and albuminuria. As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni. Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria.

Conclusions: Both PSAC and their mothers appear to be at significant risk of schistosomiasis and should be considered for treatment within the NCP of Malawi.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus