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Long Non-Coding RNAs Involved in Immune Responses.

Imamura K, Akimitsu N - Front Immunol (2014)

Bottom Line: A large number of human RNA transcripts, which do not encode proteins are defined as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs).Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are more than 200 nucleotides in length and play roles in various biological pathways.In this review, we summarize the functions of lncRNAs which regulate immune responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radioisotope Centre, The University of Tokyo , Tokyo , Japan.

ABSTRACT
A large number of human RNA transcripts, which do not encode proteins are defined as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These ncRNAs are divided into two classes of different lengths; short and long ncRNAs. MicroRNAs are a major class of short ncRNAs, ~22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are more than 200 nucleotides in length and play roles in various biological pathways. In this review, we summarize the functions of lncRNAs which regulate immune responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ncRNAs that regulate chromatin structure and transcription factors. (A) NeST/Tmevpg1 activates transcription of genes by recruiting the histone modifier WDR5, which methylates H3K4. Lnc-IL7R activates transcription of genes by H3K27 trimethylation. (B) The complex of THRIL and hnRNPL activates transcription of genes. The complex of lincRNA-Cox2 and hnRNPA/B or hnRNPA2/B1 represses transcription of genes. (C) NEAT1 activates transcription of genes by sequestration of transcriptional factor SFPQ.
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Figure 1: ncRNAs that regulate chromatin structure and transcription factors. (A) NeST/Tmevpg1 activates transcription of genes by recruiting the histone modifier WDR5, which methylates H3K4. Lnc-IL7R activates transcription of genes by H3K27 trimethylation. (B) The complex of THRIL and hnRNPL activates transcription of genes. The complex of lincRNA-Cox2 and hnRNPA/B or hnRNPA2/B1 represses transcription of genes. (C) NEAT1 activates transcription of genes by sequestration of transcriptional factor SFPQ.

Mentions: Several lines of evidence have recently emerged concerning lncRNA involvement in the regulation of inflammatory mediator or cytokine expression. Unlike miRNAs, lncRNAs regulate expression of inflammatory mediators or cytokines by working with RBPs in a number of ways. Some complexes of lncRNAs and RBPs bind to promoters of inflammatory mediator or cytokine genes to regulate transcription or to modify the chromatin (Figures 1A,B). NEAT1 regulates the location of the transcription inhibitor SFPQ from promoter to paraspeckle (Figure 1C). These observations suggest that lncRNAs are factors of the innate immune response. However, there is only evidence that lncRNA induce under TLR ligand stimulation so far and little evidence that lncRNA function under the real bacterial infection, which induces more complicated event in cells. Further studies of this regulation by lncRNAs are likely to reveal novel drug targets for therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases.


Long Non-Coding RNAs Involved in Immune Responses.

Imamura K, Akimitsu N - Front Immunol (2014)

ncRNAs that regulate chromatin structure and transcription factors. (A) NeST/Tmevpg1 activates transcription of genes by recruiting the histone modifier WDR5, which methylates H3K4. Lnc-IL7R activates transcription of genes by H3K27 trimethylation. (B) The complex of THRIL and hnRNPL activates transcription of genes. The complex of lincRNA-Cox2 and hnRNPA/B or hnRNPA2/B1 represses transcription of genes. (C) NEAT1 activates transcription of genes by sequestration of transcriptional factor SFPQ.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4230175&req=5

Figure 1: ncRNAs that regulate chromatin structure and transcription factors. (A) NeST/Tmevpg1 activates transcription of genes by recruiting the histone modifier WDR5, which methylates H3K4. Lnc-IL7R activates transcription of genes by H3K27 trimethylation. (B) The complex of THRIL and hnRNPL activates transcription of genes. The complex of lincRNA-Cox2 and hnRNPA/B or hnRNPA2/B1 represses transcription of genes. (C) NEAT1 activates transcription of genes by sequestration of transcriptional factor SFPQ.
Mentions: Several lines of evidence have recently emerged concerning lncRNA involvement in the regulation of inflammatory mediator or cytokine expression. Unlike miRNAs, lncRNAs regulate expression of inflammatory mediators or cytokines by working with RBPs in a number of ways. Some complexes of lncRNAs and RBPs bind to promoters of inflammatory mediator or cytokine genes to regulate transcription or to modify the chromatin (Figures 1A,B). NEAT1 regulates the location of the transcription inhibitor SFPQ from promoter to paraspeckle (Figure 1C). These observations suggest that lncRNAs are factors of the innate immune response. However, there is only evidence that lncRNA induce under TLR ligand stimulation so far and little evidence that lncRNA function under the real bacterial infection, which induces more complicated event in cells. Further studies of this regulation by lncRNAs are likely to reveal novel drug targets for therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases.

Bottom Line: A large number of human RNA transcripts, which do not encode proteins are defined as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs).Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are more than 200 nucleotides in length and play roles in various biological pathways.In this review, we summarize the functions of lncRNAs which regulate immune responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radioisotope Centre, The University of Tokyo , Tokyo , Japan.

ABSTRACT
A large number of human RNA transcripts, which do not encode proteins are defined as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These ncRNAs are divided into two classes of different lengths; short and long ncRNAs. MicroRNAs are a major class of short ncRNAs, ~22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are more than 200 nucleotides in length and play roles in various biological pathways. In this review, we summarize the functions of lncRNAs which regulate immune responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus