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Behavioral and physiological responses to fruit availability of spider monkeys ranging in a small forest fragment.

Rimbach R, Link A, Montes-Rojas A, Di Fiore A, Heistermann M, Heymann EW - Am. J. Primatol. (2014)

Bottom Line: This might result in behavioral and dietary adjustments, especially because fruit availability is frequently reduced in fragments.Food scarcity can result in elevated physiological stress levels, and chronic stress often has detrimental effects on individuals.The atypical grouping pattern of the study groups seems to be less effective at mitigating contest competition over food resources than more typical fission-fusion patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Unit, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany; Fundación Proyecto Primates, Bogotá, Colombia.

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Relationship between log transformed FGCM levels and fruit availability. The y-axis represents the residuals of FGCM levels obtained from a LMM including sex, age, female reproductive state, fecal sample collection time, and subgroup size as fixed factors, and individual ID and group as random factors.
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fig03: Relationship between log transformed FGCM levels and fruit availability. The y-axis represents the residuals of FGCM levels obtained from a LMM including sex, age, female reproductive state, fecal sample collection time, and subgroup size as fixed factors, and individual ID and group as random factors.

Mentions: Overall, the full model (Model 1) estimating the influence of fruit availability on FGCM levels differed significantly from the model (X2 = 141.07, df = 7, P < 0.0001, N = 366 fecal samples). More specifically, fruit availability had a positive effect on FGCM levels (LMM: Estimate ± SE: 0.22 ± 0.03, T = 5.82, PMCMC = 0.0001; Table4, Fig. 3). The full model (Model 2) investigating the influence of aggression rate on FGCM levels did not differ from the model (X2 = 3.34, df = 3, P = 0.34, N = 97 fecal samples).


Behavioral and physiological responses to fruit availability of spider monkeys ranging in a small forest fragment.

Rimbach R, Link A, Montes-Rojas A, Di Fiore A, Heistermann M, Heymann EW - Am. J. Primatol. (2014)

Relationship between log transformed FGCM levels and fruit availability. The y-axis represents the residuals of FGCM levels obtained from a LMM including sex, age, female reproductive state, fecal sample collection time, and subgroup size as fixed factors, and individual ID and group as random factors.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4229060&req=5

fig03: Relationship between log transformed FGCM levels and fruit availability. The y-axis represents the residuals of FGCM levels obtained from a LMM including sex, age, female reproductive state, fecal sample collection time, and subgroup size as fixed factors, and individual ID and group as random factors.
Mentions: Overall, the full model (Model 1) estimating the influence of fruit availability on FGCM levels differed significantly from the model (X2 = 141.07, df = 7, P < 0.0001, N = 366 fecal samples). More specifically, fruit availability had a positive effect on FGCM levels (LMM: Estimate ± SE: 0.22 ± 0.03, T = 5.82, PMCMC = 0.0001; Table4, Fig. 3). The full model (Model 2) investigating the influence of aggression rate on FGCM levels did not differ from the model (X2 = 3.34, df = 3, P = 0.34, N = 97 fecal samples).

Bottom Line: This might result in behavioral and dietary adjustments, especially because fruit availability is frequently reduced in fragments.Food scarcity can result in elevated physiological stress levels, and chronic stress often has detrimental effects on individuals.The atypical grouping pattern of the study groups seems to be less effective at mitigating contest competition over food resources than more typical fission-fusion patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Unit, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany; Fundación Proyecto Primates, Bogotá, Colombia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus