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Integration of multiscale dendritic spine structure and function data into systems biology models.

Mancuso JJ, Cheng J, Yin Z, Gilliam JC, Xia X, Li X, Wong ST - Front Neuroanat (2014)

Bottom Line: Anatomical changes occur on a full range of scales from the trafficking of individual proteins, to alterations in synaptic morphology both individually and on a systems level, to reductions in long distance connectivity and brain volume.A comprehensive model of anatomical changes and their functional consequences would be a holy grail for the field of systems neuroscience but its realization appears far on the horizon.Various imaging technologies have advanced to allow for multi-scale visualization of brain plasticity and pathology, but computational analysis of the big data sets involved forms the bottleneck toward the creation of multiscale models of brain structure and function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Systems Medicine and Bioengineering, Houston Methodist Research Institute Houston, TX, USA ; TT and WF Chao Center for Bioinformatics Research and Imaging for Neurosciences, Houston Methodist Research Institute Houston, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Comprising 10(11) neurons with 10(14) synaptic connections the human brain is the ultimate systems biology puzzle. An increasing body of evidence highlights the observation that changes in brain function, both normal and pathological, consistently correlate with dynamic changes in neuronal anatomy. Anatomical changes occur on a full range of scales from the trafficking of individual proteins, to alterations in synaptic morphology both individually and on a systems level, to reductions in long distance connectivity and brain volume. The major sites of contact for synapsing neurons are dendritic spines, which provide an excellent metric for the number and strength of signaling connections between elements of functional neuronal circuits. A comprehensive model of anatomical changes and their functional consequences would be a holy grail for the field of systems neuroscience but its realization appears far on the horizon. Various imaging technologies have advanced to allow for multi-scale visualization of brain plasticity and pathology, but computational analysis of the big data sets involved forms the bottleneck toward the creation of multiscale models of brain structure and function. While a full accounting of techniques and progress toward a comprehensive model of brain anatomy and function is beyond the scope of this or any other single paper, this review serves to highlight the opportunities for analysis of neuronal spine anatomy and function provided by new imaging technologies and the high-throughput application of older technologies while surveying the strengths and weaknesses of currently available computational analytical tools and room for future improvement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustrates the principles of the systems medicine approach. Multi-scale data from a range of sources is integrated to provide a more comprehensive understanding of a disease state.
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Figure 1: Illustrates the principles of the systems medicine approach. Multi-scale data from a range of sources is integrated to provide a more comprehensive understanding of a disease state.

Mentions: The nervous system is so complex that studies have had to focus on individual or small numbers of components at a single level of organization. Such a reductionist approach has helped reveal many processes that govern neuronal and brain function and has led the foundation of the field of neuroscience. Translating the logic of this reductionist approach to modern neuroscience results in a framework that is rooted in the scientific method and premised on biological discovery and understanding of disease mechanisms. Although the logic remains compelling, the traditional reductionist framework often leads to the study of individual proteins, subcellular structures, or neurons in isolation and can neglect the dynamic interaction of all components and how their interaction can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of neuronal function and dysfunction. Owing to recent advances in biotechnologies and computational sciences, biologists are now gaining the capability to go beyond the interactions of components within a single level of biological organization and the study of one or a few components at a time. The application of engineering precepts to biological systems has spawned the field of systems biology. Biologists are increasingly able to integrate information and form networks of interacting components across many organisms, from multiple levels of biological organization, such as cells, organs, and populations, and about entire systems, such as all the genes in a genome, to obtain new knowledge that incorporates more of the complexity that characterizes biological systems (see Figure 1).


Integration of multiscale dendritic spine structure and function data into systems biology models.

Mancuso JJ, Cheng J, Yin Z, Gilliam JC, Xia X, Li X, Wong ST - Front Neuroanat (2014)

Illustrates the principles of the systems medicine approach. Multi-scale data from a range of sources is integrated to provide a more comprehensive understanding of a disease state.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4228840&req=5

Figure 1: Illustrates the principles of the systems medicine approach. Multi-scale data from a range of sources is integrated to provide a more comprehensive understanding of a disease state.
Mentions: The nervous system is so complex that studies have had to focus on individual or small numbers of components at a single level of organization. Such a reductionist approach has helped reveal many processes that govern neuronal and brain function and has led the foundation of the field of neuroscience. Translating the logic of this reductionist approach to modern neuroscience results in a framework that is rooted in the scientific method and premised on biological discovery and understanding of disease mechanisms. Although the logic remains compelling, the traditional reductionist framework often leads to the study of individual proteins, subcellular structures, or neurons in isolation and can neglect the dynamic interaction of all components and how their interaction can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of neuronal function and dysfunction. Owing to recent advances in biotechnologies and computational sciences, biologists are now gaining the capability to go beyond the interactions of components within a single level of biological organization and the study of one or a few components at a time. The application of engineering precepts to biological systems has spawned the field of systems biology. Biologists are increasingly able to integrate information and form networks of interacting components across many organisms, from multiple levels of biological organization, such as cells, organs, and populations, and about entire systems, such as all the genes in a genome, to obtain new knowledge that incorporates more of the complexity that characterizes biological systems (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Anatomical changes occur on a full range of scales from the trafficking of individual proteins, to alterations in synaptic morphology both individually and on a systems level, to reductions in long distance connectivity and brain volume.A comprehensive model of anatomical changes and their functional consequences would be a holy grail for the field of systems neuroscience but its realization appears far on the horizon.Various imaging technologies have advanced to allow for multi-scale visualization of brain plasticity and pathology, but computational analysis of the big data sets involved forms the bottleneck toward the creation of multiscale models of brain structure and function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Systems Medicine and Bioengineering, Houston Methodist Research Institute Houston, TX, USA ; TT and WF Chao Center for Bioinformatics Research and Imaging for Neurosciences, Houston Methodist Research Institute Houston, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Comprising 10(11) neurons with 10(14) synaptic connections the human brain is the ultimate systems biology puzzle. An increasing body of evidence highlights the observation that changes in brain function, both normal and pathological, consistently correlate with dynamic changes in neuronal anatomy. Anatomical changes occur on a full range of scales from the trafficking of individual proteins, to alterations in synaptic morphology both individually and on a systems level, to reductions in long distance connectivity and brain volume. The major sites of contact for synapsing neurons are dendritic spines, which provide an excellent metric for the number and strength of signaling connections between elements of functional neuronal circuits. A comprehensive model of anatomical changes and their functional consequences would be a holy grail for the field of systems neuroscience but its realization appears far on the horizon. Various imaging technologies have advanced to allow for multi-scale visualization of brain plasticity and pathology, but computational analysis of the big data sets involved forms the bottleneck toward the creation of multiscale models of brain structure and function. While a full accounting of techniques and progress toward a comprehensive model of brain anatomy and function is beyond the scope of this or any other single paper, this review serves to highlight the opportunities for analysis of neuronal spine anatomy and function provided by new imaging technologies and the high-throughput application of older technologies while surveying the strengths and weaknesses of currently available computational analytical tools and room for future improvement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus