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Melasma update.

Sarkar R, Arora P, Garg VK, Sonthalia S, Gokhale N - Indian Dermatol Online J (2014)

Bottom Line: An insight into the pathogenesis is important to devise treatment modalities that accurately target the disease process and prevent relapses.Hydroquinone remains the gold standard of treatment though many newer drugs, especially plant extracts, have been developed in the last few years.We also describe the newer treatment options available and their efficacy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Melasma is an acquired pigmentary disorder characterized by symmetrical hyperpigmented macules on the face. Its pathogenesis is complex and involves the interplay of various factors such as genetic predisposition, ultraviolet radiation, hormonal factors, and drugs. An insight into the pathogenesis is important to devise treatment modalities that accurately target the disease process and prevent relapses. Hydroquinone remains the gold standard of treatment though many newer drugs, especially plant extracts, have been developed in the last few years. In this article, we review the pathogenetic factors involved in melasma. We also describe the newer treatment options available and their efficacy. We carried out a PubMed search using the following terms "melasma, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, treatment" and have included data of the last few years.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Confocal microscope images of melasma showing epidermal pigmentation: (a) Melasma on the cheek. L is for lesional skin and N is for normal perilesional skin. (b) Confocal images depict cobblestoning and loss of dermal papillary rings at the basal layer of the melasma lesion (L) compared to perlesional normal skin (N). Scale bar: 50 um. (c) Histopathology from same lesion showing greater epidermal hyperpigmentation and flattened rete ridges in lesion compared to perilesional normal skin Fontana-Masson staining, horizontal line indicates where reflectance confocal microscopy image is taken from (source acknowledged: Kang HY, Bahadoran P, Ortonne JP. Reflectance confocal microscopy for pigmentary disorders. Exp Dermatol 2010;19:233-9)
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Figure 10: Confocal microscope images of melasma showing epidermal pigmentation: (a) Melasma on the cheek. L is for lesional skin and N is for normal perilesional skin. (b) Confocal images depict cobblestoning and loss of dermal papillary rings at the basal layer of the melasma lesion (L) compared to perlesional normal skin (N). Scale bar: 50 um. (c) Histopathology from same lesion showing greater epidermal hyperpigmentation and flattened rete ridges in lesion compared to perilesional normal skin Fontana-Masson staining, horizontal line indicates where reflectance confocal microscopy image is taken from (source acknowledged: Kang HY, Bahadoran P, Ortonne JP. Reflectance confocal microscopy for pigmentary disorders. Exp Dermatol 2010;19:233-9)

Mentions: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive tool for the evaluation of the skin up to the papillary dermis.[25] This technique can provide real-time en face images that have a resolution that matches that of histopathological examination. Kang et al. carried out a study to investigate the role of RCM in melasma and provide a set of morphological criteria with histological correlations.[26] These are depicted in Figures 10 and 11. These are shown in Table 2.


Melasma update.

Sarkar R, Arora P, Garg VK, Sonthalia S, Gokhale N - Indian Dermatol Online J (2014)

Confocal microscope images of melasma showing epidermal pigmentation: (a) Melasma on the cheek. L is for lesional skin and N is for normal perilesional skin. (b) Confocal images depict cobblestoning and loss of dermal papillary rings at the basal layer of the melasma lesion (L) compared to perlesional normal skin (N). Scale bar: 50 um. (c) Histopathology from same lesion showing greater epidermal hyperpigmentation and flattened rete ridges in lesion compared to perilesional normal skin Fontana-Masson staining, horizontal line indicates where reflectance confocal microscopy image is taken from (source acknowledged: Kang HY, Bahadoran P, Ortonne JP. Reflectance confocal microscopy for pigmentary disorders. Exp Dermatol 2010;19:233-9)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4228635&req=5

Figure 10: Confocal microscope images of melasma showing epidermal pigmentation: (a) Melasma on the cheek. L is for lesional skin and N is for normal perilesional skin. (b) Confocal images depict cobblestoning and loss of dermal papillary rings at the basal layer of the melasma lesion (L) compared to perlesional normal skin (N). Scale bar: 50 um. (c) Histopathology from same lesion showing greater epidermal hyperpigmentation and flattened rete ridges in lesion compared to perilesional normal skin Fontana-Masson staining, horizontal line indicates where reflectance confocal microscopy image is taken from (source acknowledged: Kang HY, Bahadoran P, Ortonne JP. Reflectance confocal microscopy for pigmentary disorders. Exp Dermatol 2010;19:233-9)
Mentions: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive tool for the evaluation of the skin up to the papillary dermis.[25] This technique can provide real-time en face images that have a resolution that matches that of histopathological examination. Kang et al. carried out a study to investigate the role of RCM in melasma and provide a set of morphological criteria with histological correlations.[26] These are depicted in Figures 10 and 11. These are shown in Table 2.

Bottom Line: An insight into the pathogenesis is important to devise treatment modalities that accurately target the disease process and prevent relapses.Hydroquinone remains the gold standard of treatment though many newer drugs, especially plant extracts, have been developed in the last few years.We also describe the newer treatment options available and their efficacy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Melasma is an acquired pigmentary disorder characterized by symmetrical hyperpigmented macules on the face. Its pathogenesis is complex and involves the interplay of various factors such as genetic predisposition, ultraviolet radiation, hormonal factors, and drugs. An insight into the pathogenesis is important to devise treatment modalities that accurately target the disease process and prevent relapses. Hydroquinone remains the gold standard of treatment though many newer drugs, especially plant extracts, have been developed in the last few years. In this article, we review the pathogenetic factors involved in melasma. We also describe the newer treatment options available and their efficacy. We carried out a PubMed search using the following terms "melasma, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, treatment" and have included data of the last few years.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus