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Comparative metabolomic and ionomic approach for abundant fishes in estuarine environments of Japan.

Yoshida S, Date Y, Akama M, Kikuchi J - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Environmental metabolomics or ionomics is widely used to characterize the effects of environmental stressors on the health of aquatic organisms.However, most studies have focused on liver and muscle tissues of fish, and little is known about how the other organs are affected by environmental perturbations and effects such as metal pollutants or eutrophication.Such analyses will be highly useful in evaluating the environmental variation and diversity in aquatic ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Environmental metabolomics or ionomics is widely used to characterize the effects of environmental stressors on the health of aquatic organisms. However, most studies have focused on liver and muscle tissues of fish, and little is known about how the other organs are affected by environmental perturbations and effects such as metal pollutants or eutrophication. We examined the metabolic and mineral profiles of three kinds of abundant fishes in estuarine ecosystem, yellowfin goby, urohaze-goby, and juvenile Japanese seabass sampled from Tsurumi River estuary, Japan. Multivariate analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry-based ionomics approaches, revealed that the profiles were clustered according to differences among body tissues rather than differences in body size, sex, and species. The metabolic and mineral profiles of the muscle and fin tissues, respectively, suggest that these tissues are most appropriate for evaluating environmental perturbations. Such analyses will be highly useful in evaluating the environmental variation and diversity in aquatic ecosystems.

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Metabolic profiles of fish tissues based on 1H-NMR spectra.The principal components analysis (PCA) score plot (A) and loading plot (B) of the three species are displayed. A total of 132 samples were used for analysis. Numbers on loading plots represent the metabolites listed in Table 2. Circles, urohaze-goby; triangles, yellowfin goby; squares, Japanese seabass; closed symbols, female; open symbols, male; gray, head parts; black, eyes; purple, body muscle; pink, cheek muscle; blue (light to dark), each fin; red, gill; orange, liver; ocher, backbone.
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f3: Metabolic profiles of fish tissues based on 1H-NMR spectra.The principal components analysis (PCA) score plot (A) and loading plot (B) of the three species are displayed. A total of 132 samples were used for analysis. Numbers on loading plots represent the metabolites listed in Table 2. Circles, urohaze-goby; triangles, yellowfin goby; squares, Japanese seabass; closed symbols, female; open symbols, male; gray, head parts; black, eyes; purple, body muscle; pink, cheek muscle; blue (light to dark), each fin; red, gill; orange, liver; ocher, backbone.

Mentions: The metabolic profiles of the three fish species were evaluated using NMR-based metabolomic analysis of head, eye, gill, cheek muscle, body muscle, backbone, liver, dorsal fin, pectoral fin, pelvic fin, anal fin, and caudal fin tissues. The NMR spectral data were digitized and statistically computed for PCA; the PCA score plot demonstrated that the metabolic profiles were also likely to cluster according to differences among body tissues rather than differences in sex, body size (body mass index), or species (Fig. 3A). The metabolic profiles of head, gill, backbone, and fins clustered in a PC1-positive and PC2-negative direction; the eye, cheek, and body muscle profiles clustered in a PC1-negative direction and liver profiles clustered in a PC1-negative and PC2-positive direction. The profiles of the eye, cheek and body muscles, and liver were more diverse than those of the other tissues. The factors contributing to separation in the PCA scores were also analyzed by loading plots (Fig. 3B). To confirm the metabolic annotation for body muscle, we conducted an 1H–13C HSQC NMR experiment using juvenile Japanese seabass (Fig. S6); the annotated metabolites are provided in Table S1. The metabolic profiles of the eye, cheek and body muscles, and liver included lactate, creatine, taurine, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and betaine (Table 2), indicating that these tissues contained more information on genetic and environmental differences among individuals than did other tissues. Metabolic profiling of eye, cheek and body muscle, and liver can thus provide valuable information on environmental conditions. Because most fish have a higher volume of body muscle tissue than eye, cheek muscle, or liver tissue, body muscle is better suited for metabolic profiling by NMR to evaluate environmental metabolotypes (particularly for small fish).


Comparative metabolomic and ionomic approach for abundant fishes in estuarine environments of Japan.

Yoshida S, Date Y, Akama M, Kikuchi J - Sci Rep (2014)

Metabolic profiles of fish tissues based on 1H-NMR spectra.The principal components analysis (PCA) score plot (A) and loading plot (B) of the three species are displayed. A total of 132 samples were used for analysis. Numbers on loading plots represent the metabolites listed in Table 2. Circles, urohaze-goby; triangles, yellowfin goby; squares, Japanese seabass; closed symbols, female; open symbols, male; gray, head parts; black, eyes; purple, body muscle; pink, cheek muscle; blue (light to dark), each fin; red, gill; orange, liver; ocher, backbone.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4228347&req=5

f3: Metabolic profiles of fish tissues based on 1H-NMR spectra.The principal components analysis (PCA) score plot (A) and loading plot (B) of the three species are displayed. A total of 132 samples were used for analysis. Numbers on loading plots represent the metabolites listed in Table 2. Circles, urohaze-goby; triangles, yellowfin goby; squares, Japanese seabass; closed symbols, female; open symbols, male; gray, head parts; black, eyes; purple, body muscle; pink, cheek muscle; blue (light to dark), each fin; red, gill; orange, liver; ocher, backbone.
Mentions: The metabolic profiles of the three fish species were evaluated using NMR-based metabolomic analysis of head, eye, gill, cheek muscle, body muscle, backbone, liver, dorsal fin, pectoral fin, pelvic fin, anal fin, and caudal fin tissues. The NMR spectral data were digitized and statistically computed for PCA; the PCA score plot demonstrated that the metabolic profiles were also likely to cluster according to differences among body tissues rather than differences in sex, body size (body mass index), or species (Fig. 3A). The metabolic profiles of head, gill, backbone, and fins clustered in a PC1-positive and PC2-negative direction; the eye, cheek, and body muscle profiles clustered in a PC1-negative direction and liver profiles clustered in a PC1-negative and PC2-positive direction. The profiles of the eye, cheek and body muscles, and liver were more diverse than those of the other tissues. The factors contributing to separation in the PCA scores were also analyzed by loading plots (Fig. 3B). To confirm the metabolic annotation for body muscle, we conducted an 1H–13C HSQC NMR experiment using juvenile Japanese seabass (Fig. S6); the annotated metabolites are provided in Table S1. The metabolic profiles of the eye, cheek and body muscles, and liver included lactate, creatine, taurine, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and betaine (Table 2), indicating that these tissues contained more information on genetic and environmental differences among individuals than did other tissues. Metabolic profiling of eye, cheek and body muscle, and liver can thus provide valuable information on environmental conditions. Because most fish have a higher volume of body muscle tissue than eye, cheek muscle, or liver tissue, body muscle is better suited for metabolic profiling by NMR to evaluate environmental metabolotypes (particularly for small fish).

Bottom Line: Environmental metabolomics or ionomics is widely used to characterize the effects of environmental stressors on the health of aquatic organisms.However, most studies have focused on liver and muscle tissues of fish, and little is known about how the other organs are affected by environmental perturbations and effects such as metal pollutants or eutrophication.Such analyses will be highly useful in evaluating the environmental variation and diversity in aquatic ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Environmental metabolomics or ionomics is widely used to characterize the effects of environmental stressors on the health of aquatic organisms. However, most studies have focused on liver and muscle tissues of fish, and little is known about how the other organs are affected by environmental perturbations and effects such as metal pollutants or eutrophication. We examined the metabolic and mineral profiles of three kinds of abundant fishes in estuarine ecosystem, yellowfin goby, urohaze-goby, and juvenile Japanese seabass sampled from Tsurumi River estuary, Japan. Multivariate analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry-based ionomics approaches, revealed that the profiles were clustered according to differences among body tissues rather than differences in body size, sex, and species. The metabolic and mineral profiles of the muscle and fin tissues, respectively, suggest that these tissues are most appropriate for evaluating environmental perturbations. Such analyses will be highly useful in evaluating the environmental variation and diversity in aquatic ecosystems.

Show MeSH