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Controlled fabrication of Sn/TiO2 nanorods for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

Sun B, Shi T, Peng Z, Sheng W, Jiang T, Liao G - Nanoscale Res Lett (2013)

Bottom Line: The obtained Sn/TiO2 NRs are single crystalline with a rutile structure.The Mott-Schottky plots indicate that incorporation of Sn into TiO2 nanorod can significantly increase the charge carrier density, leading to enhanced conductivity of the nanorod.Furthermore, we demonstrate that Sn/TiO2 NRs can be a promising candidate for photoanode in photoelectrochemical water splitting because of their excellent chemical stability.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China. guanglan.liao@hust.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
In this work, we investigate the controlled fabrication of Sn-doped TiO2 nanorods (Sn/TiO2 NRs) for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Sn is incorporated into the rutile TiO2 nanorods with Sn/Ti molar ratios ranging from 0% to 3% by a simple solvothermal synthesis method. The obtained Sn/TiO2 NRs are single crystalline with a rutile structure. The concentration of Sn in the final nanorods can be well controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursors. Photoelectrochemical experiments are conducted to explore the photocatalytic activity of Sn/TiO2 NRs with different doping levels. Under the illumination of solar simulator with the light intensity of 100 mW/cm2, our measurements reveal that the photocurrent increases with increasing doping level and reaches the maximum value of 1.01 mA/cm2 at -0.4 V versus Ag/AgCl, which corresponds to up to about 50% enhancement compared with the pristine TiO2 NRs. The Mott-Schottky plots indicate that incorporation of Sn into TiO2 nanorod can significantly increase the charge carrier density, leading to enhanced conductivity of the nanorod. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Sn/TiO2 NRs can be a promising candidate for photoanode in photoelectrochemical water splitting because of their excellent chemical stability.

No MeSH data available.


XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 NRs and Sn/TiO2 NRs synthesized with different precursor molar ratio. The reference spectra (JCPDS No. 21–1276 and No. 46–1088) were plotted for comparison.
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Figure 4: XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 NRs and Sn/TiO2 NRs synthesized with different precursor molar ratio. The reference spectra (JCPDS No. 21–1276 and No. 46–1088) were plotted for comparison.

Mentions: To further determine the crystal structure and possible phase changes after Sn doping, we collected the XRD spectra from pristine TiO2 NRs and Sn/TiO2 NRs synthesized with different precursor molar ratio, as shown in Figure 4, in which the typical diffraction peaks of the patterns have been marked. It confirms that the Sn/TiO2 NRs have a tetragonal rutile TiO2 crystal structure (JCPDS No. 21–1276), which is the same as the pristine TiO2 NRs. Even for the highly doped sample (Sn/TiO2-3%), there is no obvious change in diffraction peaks. We infer that the Sn atoms just replace Ti atoms in some spots without destroy the rutile TiO2 crystal structure as schematically illustrated in (Additional file 1: Figure S4). Noteworthy is that the relative intensity of (002) peaks seems to decrease as the doping level exceed 2%. This change may result from the fact that the perpendicularity of the nanorods to the substrate has reduced, as demonstrated in (Additional file 1: Figure S2).


Controlled fabrication of Sn/TiO2 nanorods for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

Sun B, Shi T, Peng Z, Sheng W, Jiang T, Liao G - Nanoscale Res Lett (2013)

XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 NRs and Sn/TiO2 NRs synthesized with different precursor molar ratio. The reference spectra (JCPDS No. 21–1276 and No. 46–1088) were plotted for comparison.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4228341&req=5

Figure 4: XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 NRs and Sn/TiO2 NRs synthesized with different precursor molar ratio. The reference spectra (JCPDS No. 21–1276 and No. 46–1088) were plotted for comparison.
Mentions: To further determine the crystal structure and possible phase changes after Sn doping, we collected the XRD spectra from pristine TiO2 NRs and Sn/TiO2 NRs synthesized with different precursor molar ratio, as shown in Figure 4, in which the typical diffraction peaks of the patterns have been marked. It confirms that the Sn/TiO2 NRs have a tetragonal rutile TiO2 crystal structure (JCPDS No. 21–1276), which is the same as the pristine TiO2 NRs. Even for the highly doped sample (Sn/TiO2-3%), there is no obvious change in diffraction peaks. We infer that the Sn atoms just replace Ti atoms in some spots without destroy the rutile TiO2 crystal structure as schematically illustrated in (Additional file 1: Figure S4). Noteworthy is that the relative intensity of (002) peaks seems to decrease as the doping level exceed 2%. This change may result from the fact that the perpendicularity of the nanorods to the substrate has reduced, as demonstrated in (Additional file 1: Figure S2).

Bottom Line: The obtained Sn/TiO2 NRs are single crystalline with a rutile structure.The Mott-Schottky plots indicate that incorporation of Sn into TiO2 nanorod can significantly increase the charge carrier density, leading to enhanced conductivity of the nanorod.Furthermore, we demonstrate that Sn/TiO2 NRs can be a promising candidate for photoanode in photoelectrochemical water splitting because of their excellent chemical stability.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China. guanglan.liao@hust.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
In this work, we investigate the controlled fabrication of Sn-doped TiO2 nanorods (Sn/TiO2 NRs) for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Sn is incorporated into the rutile TiO2 nanorods with Sn/Ti molar ratios ranging from 0% to 3% by a simple solvothermal synthesis method. The obtained Sn/TiO2 NRs are single crystalline with a rutile structure. The concentration of Sn in the final nanorods can be well controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursors. Photoelectrochemical experiments are conducted to explore the photocatalytic activity of Sn/TiO2 NRs with different doping levels. Under the illumination of solar simulator with the light intensity of 100 mW/cm2, our measurements reveal that the photocurrent increases with increasing doping level and reaches the maximum value of 1.01 mA/cm2 at -0.4 V versus Ag/AgCl, which corresponds to up to about 50% enhancement compared with the pristine TiO2 NRs. The Mott-Schottky plots indicate that incorporation of Sn into TiO2 nanorod can significantly increase the charge carrier density, leading to enhanced conductivity of the nanorod. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Sn/TiO2 NRs can be a promising candidate for photoanode in photoelectrochemical water splitting because of their excellent chemical stability.

No MeSH data available.