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Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

Greening GJ, Istfan R, Higgins LM, Balachandran K, Roblyer D, Pierce MC, Muldoon TJ - J Biomed Opt (2014)

Bottom Line: The reduced scattering and absorption coefficients were controlled using titanium dioxide and alcohol-soluble nigrosin, respectively.In addition, heterogeneous phantoms mimicking the layered features of certain tissue types may be fabricated from multiple stacked layers, each with custom optical properties.These thin, tunable PDMS optical phantoms can simulate many tissue types and have broad imaging calibration applications in endoscopy, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging, and optical coherence tomography, etc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Arkansas, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, United States.

ABSTRACT
Optical phantoms are used in the development of various imaging systems. For certain applications, the development of thin phantoms that simulate the physical size and optical properties of tissue is important. Here, we demonstrate a method for producing thin phantom layers with tunable optical properties using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a substrate material. The thickness of each layer (between 115 and 880 μm) was controlled using a spin coater. The reduced scattering and absorption coefficients were controlled using titanium dioxide and alcohol-soluble nigrosin, respectively. These optical coefficients were quantified at six discrete wavelengths (591, 631, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) at varying concentrations of titanium dioxide and nigrosin using spatial frequency domain imaging. From the presented data, we provide lookup tables to determine the appropriate concentrations of scattering and absorbing agents to be used in the design of PDMS-based phantoms with specific optical coefficients. In addition, heterogeneous phantoms mimicking the layered features of certain tissue types may be fabricated from multiple stacked layers, each with custom optical properties. These thin, tunable PDMS optical phantoms can simulate many tissue types and have broad imaging calibration applications in endoscopy, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging, and optical coherence tomography, etc.

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Relationship between  () and 1% w/v nigrosin/EtOH concentration in PDMS elastomer base () measured at six discrete wavelengths (591, 621, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) using SFDI analysis. Here, absorption coefficients range between approximately 0 and . Best fit curves, generated by the MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox (power fit), are shown for the 591 nm (dashed) and 851 nm (dotted) wavelengths, respectively.
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f5: Relationship between () and 1% w/v nigrosin/EtOH concentration in PDMS elastomer base () measured at six discrete wavelengths (591, 621, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) using SFDI analysis. Here, absorption coefficients range between approximately 0 and . Best fit curves, generated by the MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox (power fit), are shown for the 591 nm (dashed) and 851 nm (dotted) wavelengths, respectively.

Mentions: Figure 5 shows the relationship between 1 w/v% of the nigrosin/EtOH (absorbing agent) in a PDMS elastomer base () and the resulting () for six discrete wavelengths measured by SFDI (591, 621, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm). Nine phantoms (#1 and 9–16 in Table 1) were used in this study; they contained a constant amount of (scattering agent) and increasing 1% w/v nigrosin/EtOH concentrations in a PDMS elastomer base.


Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

Greening GJ, Istfan R, Higgins LM, Balachandran K, Roblyer D, Pierce MC, Muldoon TJ - J Biomed Opt (2014)

Relationship between  () and 1% w/v nigrosin/EtOH concentration in PDMS elastomer base () measured at six discrete wavelengths (591, 621, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) using SFDI analysis. Here, absorption coefficients range between approximately 0 and . Best fit curves, generated by the MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox (power fit), are shown for the 591 nm (dashed) and 851 nm (dotted) wavelengths, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4227531&req=5

f5: Relationship between () and 1% w/v nigrosin/EtOH concentration in PDMS elastomer base () measured at six discrete wavelengths (591, 621, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) using SFDI analysis. Here, absorption coefficients range between approximately 0 and . Best fit curves, generated by the MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox (power fit), are shown for the 591 nm (dashed) and 851 nm (dotted) wavelengths, respectively.
Mentions: Figure 5 shows the relationship between 1 w/v% of the nigrosin/EtOH (absorbing agent) in a PDMS elastomer base () and the resulting () for six discrete wavelengths measured by SFDI (591, 621, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm). Nine phantoms (#1 and 9–16 in Table 1) were used in this study; they contained a constant amount of (scattering agent) and increasing 1% w/v nigrosin/EtOH concentrations in a PDMS elastomer base.

Bottom Line: The reduced scattering and absorption coefficients were controlled using titanium dioxide and alcohol-soluble nigrosin, respectively.In addition, heterogeneous phantoms mimicking the layered features of certain tissue types may be fabricated from multiple stacked layers, each with custom optical properties.These thin, tunable PDMS optical phantoms can simulate many tissue types and have broad imaging calibration applications in endoscopy, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging, and optical coherence tomography, etc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Arkansas, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, United States.

ABSTRACT
Optical phantoms are used in the development of various imaging systems. For certain applications, the development of thin phantoms that simulate the physical size and optical properties of tissue is important. Here, we demonstrate a method for producing thin phantom layers with tunable optical properties using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a substrate material. The thickness of each layer (between 115 and 880 μm) was controlled using a spin coater. The reduced scattering and absorption coefficients were controlled using titanium dioxide and alcohol-soluble nigrosin, respectively. These optical coefficients were quantified at six discrete wavelengths (591, 631, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) at varying concentrations of titanium dioxide and nigrosin using spatial frequency domain imaging. From the presented data, we provide lookup tables to determine the appropriate concentrations of scattering and absorbing agents to be used in the design of PDMS-based phantoms with specific optical coefficients. In addition, heterogeneous phantoms mimicking the layered features of certain tissue types may be fabricated from multiple stacked layers, each with custom optical properties. These thin, tunable PDMS optical phantoms can simulate many tissue types and have broad imaging calibration applications in endoscopy, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging, and optical coherence tomography, etc.

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