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Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

Brand M, Laier C, Young KS - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA.The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present.The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Psychology: Cognition, University of Duisburg-Essen Duisburg, Germany ; Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Essen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The operationalized model, including main assumptions of the theoretical model on GIA, on latent dimension.
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Figure 1: The operationalized model, including main assumptions of the theoretical model on GIA, on latent dimension.

Mentions: We first translated the theoretical model described in the introduction and illustrated in the article by Brand et al. (2014) into a testable and operationalized statistical model. For each of the dimensions mentioned in the theoretical model, we chose at least two manifest variables to build a structural equation model (SEM) on latent level. For each variable, we then used a specific scale (each consisting of several items, see description of the instruments below) to operationalize the manifest variables. This operationalized model as SEM on latent level is shown in Figure 1.


Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

Brand M, Laier C, Young KS - Front Psychol (2014)

The operationalized model, including main assumptions of the theoretical model on GIA, on latent dimension.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4227484&req=5

Figure 1: The operationalized model, including main assumptions of the theoretical model on GIA, on latent dimension.
Mentions: We first translated the theoretical model described in the introduction and illustrated in the article by Brand et al. (2014) into a testable and operationalized statistical model. For each of the dimensions mentioned in the theoretical model, we chose at least two manifest variables to build a structural equation model (SEM) on latent level. For each variable, we then used a specific scale (each consisting of several items, see description of the instruments below) to operationalize the manifest variables. This operationalized model as SEM on latent level is shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA.The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present.The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Psychology: Cognition, University of Duisburg-Essen Duisburg, Germany ; Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Essen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus