Limits...
The relationship between flowering time and growth responses to drought in the Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta x Antwerp-1 population.

Schmalenbach I, Zhang L, Reymond M, Jiménez-Gómez JM - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: We used these lines to confirm additive and epistatic effects of the three QTL and observed a strong association between late flowering and reduced sensitivity to drought.In contrast, early flowering, a common drought escape strategy that ensures plant survival under severe water deficit, was associated with strongly impaired plant fitness.The results presented here indicate that late flowering may be advantageous under continuous mild water deficit as it allows stress acclimatization over time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research Cologne, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Limited water availability is one of the most prominent abiotic constraints to plant survival and reproduction. Thus, plants have evolved different strategies to cope with water deficit, including modification of their growth and timing of developmental events such as flowering. In this work, we explore the link between flowering time and growth responses to moderate drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana using natural variation for these traits found in the Landsberg erecta x Antwerp-1 recombinant inbred line population. We developed and phenotyped near isogenic lines containing different allelic combinations at three interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting both flowering time and growth in response to water deficit. We used these lines to confirm additive and epistatic effects of the three QTL and observed a strong association between late flowering and reduced sensitivity to drought. Analyses of growth responses to drought over time revealed that late flowering plants were able to recover their growth in the second half of their vegetative development. In contrast, early flowering, a common drought escape strategy that ensures plant survival under severe water deficit, was associated with strongly impaired plant fitness. The results presented here indicate that late flowering may be advantageous under continuous mild water deficit as it allows stress acclimatization over time.

No MeSH data available.


Relative response of rosette area (RA) to water deficit in NILs over time. The NILs are named according to their allelic combination at QTL3, QTL5.1, and QTL5.2, where the An-1 and Ler alleles are abbreviated by “A” and “L,” respectively. Average responses for 3 to 12 plants per line and time point are shown. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. For the sake of clarity, error bars are only shown for the two NILs flowering the earliest (ALL) and the latest (LAA), respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4227481&req=5

Figure 4: Relative response of rosette area (RA) to water deficit in NILs over time. The NILs are named according to their allelic combination at QTL3, QTL5.1, and QTL5.2, where the An-1 and Ler alleles are abbreviated by “A” and “L,” respectively. Average responses for 3 to 12 plants per line and time point are shown. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. For the sake of clarity, error bars are only shown for the two NILs flowering the earliest (ALL) and the latest (LAA), respectively.

Mentions: We observed two different phases in the drought responses of the NILs. For approximately the first 40 days of the experiment, the differences between control and drought grown plants increased steadily for all NILs, and no significant variation in this pattern was detected between the lines (Figure 4). All lines displayed a progressive reduction of rosette growth under wd. After this period, the early lines reached the end of their vegetative phase, i.e., they started flowering (e.g., NILs ALL and AAL). Interestingly, the late flowering NILs LAA and AAA were able to recover during the second half of their vegetative phase, as indicated by a continuous decrease in their RA response over time (Figure 4). During this period, the late lines grew faster in wd than in ww control condition, enabling them to compensate for previous growth deficits (Supplemental Figure 3). As NIL LAA flowered the latest, it had most time to recover, resulting in the lowest reduction of RA in response to wd at its transition to the reproductive phase (Figure 4, Figure 3C).


The relationship between flowering time and growth responses to drought in the Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta x Antwerp-1 population.

Schmalenbach I, Zhang L, Reymond M, Jiménez-Gómez JM - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Relative response of rosette area (RA) to water deficit in NILs over time. The NILs are named according to their allelic combination at QTL3, QTL5.1, and QTL5.2, where the An-1 and Ler alleles are abbreviated by “A” and “L,” respectively. Average responses for 3 to 12 plants per line and time point are shown. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. For the sake of clarity, error bars are only shown for the two NILs flowering the earliest (ALL) and the latest (LAA), respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4227481&req=5

Figure 4: Relative response of rosette area (RA) to water deficit in NILs over time. The NILs are named according to their allelic combination at QTL3, QTL5.1, and QTL5.2, where the An-1 and Ler alleles are abbreviated by “A” and “L,” respectively. Average responses for 3 to 12 plants per line and time point are shown. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. For the sake of clarity, error bars are only shown for the two NILs flowering the earliest (ALL) and the latest (LAA), respectively.
Mentions: We observed two different phases in the drought responses of the NILs. For approximately the first 40 days of the experiment, the differences between control and drought grown plants increased steadily for all NILs, and no significant variation in this pattern was detected between the lines (Figure 4). All lines displayed a progressive reduction of rosette growth under wd. After this period, the early lines reached the end of their vegetative phase, i.e., they started flowering (e.g., NILs ALL and AAL). Interestingly, the late flowering NILs LAA and AAA were able to recover during the second half of their vegetative phase, as indicated by a continuous decrease in their RA response over time (Figure 4). During this period, the late lines grew faster in wd than in ww control condition, enabling them to compensate for previous growth deficits (Supplemental Figure 3). As NIL LAA flowered the latest, it had most time to recover, resulting in the lowest reduction of RA in response to wd at its transition to the reproductive phase (Figure 4, Figure 3C).

Bottom Line: We used these lines to confirm additive and epistatic effects of the three QTL and observed a strong association between late flowering and reduced sensitivity to drought.In contrast, early flowering, a common drought escape strategy that ensures plant survival under severe water deficit, was associated with strongly impaired plant fitness.The results presented here indicate that late flowering may be advantageous under continuous mild water deficit as it allows stress acclimatization over time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research Cologne, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Limited water availability is one of the most prominent abiotic constraints to plant survival and reproduction. Thus, plants have evolved different strategies to cope with water deficit, including modification of their growth and timing of developmental events such as flowering. In this work, we explore the link between flowering time and growth responses to moderate drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana using natural variation for these traits found in the Landsberg erecta x Antwerp-1 recombinant inbred line population. We developed and phenotyped near isogenic lines containing different allelic combinations at three interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting both flowering time and growth in response to water deficit. We used these lines to confirm additive and epistatic effects of the three QTL and observed a strong association between late flowering and reduced sensitivity to drought. Analyses of growth responses to drought over time revealed that late flowering plants were able to recover their growth in the second half of their vegetative development. In contrast, early flowering, a common drought escape strategy that ensures plant survival under severe water deficit, was associated with strongly impaired plant fitness. The results presented here indicate that late flowering may be advantageous under continuous mild water deficit as it allows stress acclimatization over time.

No MeSH data available.